Articles

18.14: Movie Scripts 15-16


G.15 Kernel, Range, Nullity, Rank

Invertibility Conditions

Here I am going to discuss some of the conditions on the invertibility of a matrix stated in Theorem 16.3.1. Condition 1 states that (X = M^{-1}V) uniquely, which is clearly equivalent to 4. Similarly, every square matrix (M) uniquely corresponds to a linear transformation (L colon mathbb{R}^{n} ightarrow mathbb{R}^{n}), so condition 3 is equivalent to condition 1.

Condition 6 implies 4 by the adjoint construct the inverse, but the converse is not so obvious. For the converse (4 implying 6), we refer back the proofs in Chapter 18 and 19. Note that if (det M = 0), there exists an eigenvalue of (M) equal to (0), which implies (M) is not invertible. Thus condition 8 is equivalent to conditions 4, 5, 9, and 10.

The map (M) is injective if it does not have a null space by definition, however eigenvectors with eigenvalue (0) form a basis for the null space. Hence conditions 8 and 14 are equivalent, and 14, 15, and 16 are equivalent by the Dimension Formula (also known as the Rank-Nullity Theorem).

Now conditions 11, 12, and 13 are all equivalent by the definition of a basis. Finally if a matrix (M) is not row-equivalent to the identity matrix, then (det M = 0), so conditions 2 and 8 are equivalent.

Hints for Review Problem 3

Lets work through this problem. Let (L colon V ightarrow W) be a linear transformation. Show that (ker L={0_{V}}) if and only if (L) is one-to-one:

  1. item First, suppose that (ker L={0_{V}}). Show that (L) is one-to-one. Remember what one-one means, it means whenever (L(x) = L(y)) we can be certain that (x=y). While this might seem like a weird thing to require this statement really means that each vector in the range gets mapped to a unique vector in the range. We know we have the one-one property, but we also don't want to forget some of the more basic properties of linear transformations namely that they are linear, which means (L(ax+by) = aL(x) + bL(y)) for scalars (a) and (b). What if we rephrase the one-one property to say whenever (L(x) -L(y) = 0) implies that (x-y = 0)? Can we connect that to the statement that (ker L={0_{V}})? Remember that if (L(v) = 0) then (v in ker L={0_{V}}).
  2. Now, suppose that (L) is one-to-one. Show that (ker L={0_{V}}). That is, show that (0_{V}) is in (ker L), and then show that there are no other vectors in (ker L). What would happen if we had a nonzero kernel? If we had some vector (v) with (L(v) = 0) and (v ot = 0), we could try to show that this would contradict the given that L is one-one. If we found (x) and (y) with (L(x) = L(y)), then we know (x=y). But if (L(v) = 0) then (L(x) + L(v) = L(y)). Does this cause a problem?

G.16 Least Squares and Singular Values

Least Squares: Hint for Review Problem 2

Lets work through this problem. Show that (ker L={0_{V}}) if and only if (L) is one-to-one:

  1. First, suppose that (ker L={0_{V}}). Does this cause a problem?

10 Practice Scripts for Actors

10 practice scripts for actors may be used for auditions, workshops, demo reel videos or scene work in drama class. Develop your own acting projects.

MB loves empowering actors/filmmakers and creators alike. We hold thousands of free monologues/scripts you are welcome to use at any given time.

We cover a significant range of subject matter, genre and topics including comedy, drama, thriller, scifi, dark humor, slapstick, serio-comedy, gangster, suspense and so much more.


50 Movies All Kids Should Watch Before They're 12

From classic musicals, princess tales, and animated animals to superhero adventures and holiday favorites, these must-see movies will appeal to the whole family. Like the newer films honored with our Common Sense Seal, these all-time favorites are not only hugely entertaining, but they're packed with positive messages and role models, giving them the potential for significant impact on kids and families. Some are cultural touchstones. Others give kids a look at other worlds -- both real and imaginary. Many will bring on gales of laughter, and some might lead to a few tears. But all are worthy of a comfy couch, a bowl of fresh popcorn, and some family togetherness.


The Guns of Navarone

00:
00:04 Must have been delayed, sir.

00:
00:05 It will be here in a moment.

00:
00:07 Yeah.

00:
00:16 (vehicle approaching) Major franklin?

00:
00:28 That's right.

00:
00:30 My name is baker.

00:
00:31 Sorry I was delayed. come along.

00:
00:33 It's been so comfortable I hate to leave.

00:
00:40 When you're all quite ready.

00:
01:01 Charming.

00:
01:03 Just like an english country hotel.

00:
01:05 Where does everybody else sleep?

00:
01:07 Nobody sleeps.

00:
01:08 We've got homework to do.

00:
01:10 Oh, if you insist, major.

00:
01:14 What are you doing, friend?

00:
01:15 Looking for dust?

00:
01:17 No, friend. microphones.

00:
01:18 This is the british army post.

00:
01:20 Don't you trust anyone?

00:
01:21 No. that is why I have lived so long.

00:
01:24 stavrou is colonel stavrou of the greek 19th motorized regiment.

00:
01:29 In other words, he outranks us all.

00:
01:32 It is of no moment.

00:
01:32 ..

00:
01:35 For the time being.

00:
01:37 I beg your pardon, colonel.

00:
01:39 Andrea.

00:
01:40 Oh, uh, please continue.

00:
01:42 Right. if you're ready, corporal.

00:
01:44 Oh, yes, sir.

00:
01:46 Ready, sir.

00:
01:47 Ready, willing, and able, sir.

00:
01:49 Champing at the very bit.

00:
01:50 Captain mallory and andrea are responsible for getting us to where we're going.

00:
01:56 I'm going to tell you where that is and why we're going there.

00:
01:59 That is, if you really want to know, professor.

00:
02:02 I'm all ears, sir.

00:
02:05 Franklin: We have to avoid the coast road.

00:
02:07 alexis where some of the resistance people from the town of mandrakos will come and meet us.

00:
02:17 Any questions?

00:
02:19 I have an alternate route to that place.

00:
02:22 May I borrow your pencil, please?

00:
02:27 Does the major think this is possible?

00:
02:31 I see.

00:
02:32 That's a thought, isn't it?

00:
02:33 Franklin: Well, let's reexamine the plan and see if we have any alternative.

00:
02:42 Watch out!

00:
02:43 (screaming) Avris! avris!

00:
02:45 How long do you think he's been out there?

00:
02:48 I heard something about ten minutes ago.

00:
02:51 I thought my ears were playing tricks.

00:
02:53 Then I heard it again.

00:
02:54 Brown, get major baker.

00:
02:57 Well, what's your name?

00:
02:59 What are you doing here?

00:
03:01 The major asked you a question.

00:
03:03 Answer the major.

00:
03:04 Unrer mepa a vagfor aarashe ..

00:
03:09 Sounds like kurdish.

00:
03:10 I don't understand.

00:
03:12 I'll try greek.

00:
03:13 Meelas anglica?

00:
03:15 Meelas anglica?

00:
03:16 (speaking Kurdish) Translation, sir, please.

00:
03:22 Andrea: He doesn't speak english.

00:
03:24 Why was he listening?

00:
03:28 What are you doing to that man?

00:
03:30 Do you know him?

00:
03:31 That's nicolai, our laundry boy.

00:
03:32 Is he the reason I've been disturbed?

00:
03:34 Does his job involve listening at keyholes?

00:
03:38 I don't believe it.

00:
03:40 We caught him at it.

00:
03:41 It's just curiosity.

00:
03:43 He doesn't speak english.

00:
03:44 Then why did he listen and why did he try and stab this man?

00:
03:47 I presume he was trying to defend himself.

00:
03:49 In this part of the world carrying a knife doesn't mark a man as a criminal.

00:
03:55 You there, let him go.

00:
03:57 Major baker, arrest this man and hold him incommunicado for a week.

00:
04:01 After that, my advice is you kick him out of castelrosso.

00:
04:05 Just who are you to give me advice, major?

00:
04:09 Then I'm asking you as a favor.

00:
04:13 I'll consider it.

00:
04:15 All this cloak-and-dagger stuff.

00:
04:17 Let him go!

00:
04:18 Pappadimos, have you got your silencer?

00:
04:20 Yes, sir.

00:
04:21 Shoot the laundry boy.

00:
04:23 Are you crazy?

00:
04:24 And if the major gets in your way shoot him too.

00:
04:27 That's an order.

00:
04:38 Captain, this man's insane.

00:
04:40 You won't let him do this.

00:
04:42 I can't stop him.

00:
04:43 He's in charge and anyway, I agree with him.

00:
04:45 He doesn't have to shoot you.

00:
04:47 He just has to call our h.q.

00:
04:49 And you'll be on the first troopship home as a private.

00:
04:55 Unless you give him your word that you'll do exactly as he says.

00:
05:07 All right.

00:
05:09 If it means that much to you, you have my word.

00:
05:12 Take him, sergeant.

00:
05:17 Stupid theatricals.

00:
05:19 You're entitled to your opinion but I just saved your life.

00:
05:45 I'm desperately sorry, gentlemen.

00:
05:48 Really I am.

00:
05:49 It's embarrassing.

00:
05:51 Well, just look at it.

00:
05:52 Mallory: No. it's exactly what we want.

00:
05:54 I know you wanted a boat that no one would notice but that's a disgrace.

00:
05:58 Now, look here. just give me 36 hours.

00:
06:01 I know where I can get a perfect german e-boat.

00:
06:06 I promise you, only one careful owner.

00:
06:08 I'll pop over to rhodes and get it.

00:
06:11 won't the germans have something to say?

00:
06:14 If they knew.

00:
06:15 But I've got some very good connections over there.

00:
06:18 What do you say?

00:
06:20 No, thanks. we can't wait.

00:
06:21 I'll get a couple of my chaps to help you with your gear.

00:
06:26 No. that's all right.

00:
06:28 Right. I get it.

00:
06:29 Special cargo and all that, what?

00:
06:41 Brown?

00:
06:42 Yes, sir?

00:
06:43 What do you think?

00:
06:44 Well, she's a bit of a monster, sir but I think I've got her worried.

00:
06:54 Comfortable, professor?

00:
06:56 Yes, thank you.

00:
06:57 The boys have almost finished.

00:
07:00 .. permission to speak.

00:
07:02 What about?

00:
07:03 Well, the condition of this vessel.

00:
07:06 Talk to captain mallory about that.

00:
07:08 He's in charge of transportation.

00:
07:10 Very good, sir.

00:
07:12 Sir, I've inspected this boat and I think you ought to know that I can't swim.

00:
07:18 I'll keep it in mind.

00:
07:38 Dead on 10:00, sir.

00:
07:44 Man: Hello, lucky.

00:
07:46 Hello, Lucky.

00:
07:48 Report my signal.

00:
07:50 Report my signal.

00:
07:51 Hello, george mike william.

00:
07:53 Hello, george mike william.

00:
07:55 Strength three, strength three. over.

00:
07:58 Hello, Lucky.

00:
07:58 High Flight reports indians on warpath in your territory so please be careful.

00:
08:04 Also, severe storms expected throughout your area tonight.

00:
08:09 Repeat.

00:
08:36 Hey.

00:
09:29 (whistles) Ship ahoy!

00:
09:40 Go on working.

00:
09:41 They'll have glasses.

00:
10:37 German: Lower your sails!

00:
10:40 Eh?

00:
10:41 Lower your sails!

00:
10:44 We are coming aboard.

00:
10:48 Ti lei ton katalavni kanis?

00:
10:55 Ton katalavni kanis?

00:
10:59 Me sinhurite then milo jermanica ti thelete!

00:
11:04 Statatste to kai ki amesos!

00:
11:07 Andaxi.

00:
11:10 Andaxi.

00:
11:11 ..

00:
11:15 Cataveste ta pania.

00:
11:28 German: Bereight zu borden.

00:
12:03 Steh auf!

00:
12:08 Steh auf!

00:
12:11 Anixe.

00:
12:52 ..ah!

00:
14:04 (thunder crashing) (wind howling) It's knee-deep in the hold but I should think we'll manage.

00:
15:03 You want a breather?

00:
15:04 Wouldn't mind.

00:
15:13 Funny the way that german officer kept speaking english to us back there.

00:
15:17 Almost as if he knew who we were.

00:
15:21 I've had the same thought.

00:
15:23 I think our friend baker may have some explaining to do.

00:
15:28 I shouldn't have done it.

00:
15:30 What's that?

00:
15:31 Dragged you into this.

00:
15:32 I'm sorry.

00:
15:34 Forget it.

00:
15:34 I was getting tired of crete food anyway.

00:
15:38 No. I'm stupid sometimes.

00:
15:39 Even when I was a kid I always took it for granted people wanted to play the games I liked.

00:
15:45 Then I'd get furious when they didn't.

00:
15:47 Well, now they have to so why worry?

00:
15:52 (wind howling) Hot coffee.

00:
16:16 Oh, that's good.

00:
16:25 Sorry, captain.

00:
16:26 There's a serious shortage of cups aboard this ship.

00:
16:30 Remember I did point out certain deficiencies in this vessel.

00:
16:34 I remember.

00:
16:40 Thanks.

00:
16:41 My pleasure.

00:
16:44 Any time you want another little chat, sir-- about this boat, I mean-- I'm available.

00:
16:50 All right.

00:
16:55 And I still can't swim.

00:
17:05 Don't mind him.

00:
17:05 He doesn't mean anything.

00:
17:07 I don't mind him as much as he seems to mind me.

00:
17:14 Have you been together long?

00:
17:16 Since the beginning out here.

00:
17:17 He's the best friend I have in this part of the world.

00:
17:26 That's a pretty good partner you've got there yourself.

00:
17:31 Yes.

00:
17:35 We've been together for a long time too.

00:
17:38 You're lucky.

00:
17:44 He's going to kill me when the war is over.

00:
17:50 You're not serious.

00:
17:52 Yes, I am.

00:
17:53 So is he.

00:
18:02 About a year ago I gave a german patrol a safe conduct to get some wounded into hospital.

00:
18:09 I had some romantic notions in those days about fighting a civilized war.

00:
18:14 Anyway, they wanted andrea pretty badly even then.

00:
18:18 They shot their casualties went over to his house and blew it up.

00:
18:22 He was out o the time but his wife and three children were in the house.

00:
18:29 They were all killed.

00:
18:33 I helped him to bury them.

00:
18:35 He didn't say a word to me-- never looked at me-- but after it was over, he turned to me ..

00:
18:44 It wasn't the germans who were responsible but me-- me and my stupid anglo-saxon decency.

00:
18:55 Then he told me what he was going to do and when.

00:
19:00 Do you think he still means to do it?

00:
19:05 He's from crete.

00:
19:07 Those people don't make idle threats.

00:
19:13 When I thought I was getting leave .. I was going to ask for transfer to another area.

00:
19:18 Some time to think, get ready for him.

00:
19:22 And I messed that up.

00:
19:25 I'm sorry.

00:
19:26 That's all right.

00:
19:28 It's going to be a long war.

00:
19:31 What makes you sure he's going to wait that long?

00:
19:34 Well, I'm not.

00:
19:37 Not if he gets the right opportunity.

00:
19:43 What I'm banking on is that right now all he wants to do is to kill germans.

00:
19:47 As long as I can be useful to him in that department ..

00:
19:56 I hope.

00:
19:58 That's nice of him.

00:
20:01 Well, I can see his point.

00:
20:05 The only way to win a war is to be just as nasty as the enemy.

00:
20:09 One thing that worries me is that we're liable to wake up one morning and find out we're even nastier than they are.

00:
20:14 Can't say that worries me.

00:
20:16 Well, you're lucky.

00:
20:29 Think I'd better have a look at the hold.

00:
20:33 Before miller tells me to.

00:
21:15 (glass breaking) (creaking) (wind howling) (bird squawking) (clanking) (speaking German) Help!

00:
35:50 Well, we've saved the explosives the guns, and most of the ammunition.

00:
35:58 I'm afraid we've lost the food and the medical supplies but if we make our rendezvous alexis they should be able to supply us with both.

00:
36:07 Let's get out of this place as quickly as we can.

00:
36:11 Pappadimos and miller you'll have the first shift with the stretcher.

00:
36:16 You're officially taking command of this team, sir?

00:
36:22 Yes, I suppose I am. why?

00:
36:23 Just for the record.

00:
36:44 This afternoon on the boat, you fumbled your job.

00:
36:50 How did that happen?

00:
36:54 I don't know, sir.

00:
36:57 But the man was a foot away from you with his back turned.

00:
36:59 You only wounded him.

00:
37:01 How could you miss?

00:
37:04 I must have hesitated, sir.

00:
37:07 You hesitated?

00:
37:09 A man of your experience?

00:
37:12 The butcher of barcelona?

00:
37:14 How could you hesitate?

00:
37:18 Well, I was tired.

00:
37:21 I'm tired and I'm fed up.

00:
37:23 I've been fighting this war a long time.

00:
37:26 I've been killing germans since 1937.

00:
37:28 There's no end to them.

00:
37:30 You shoot a man at 200 yards, he's just a moving target.

00:
37:33 You kill him with a knife-- you're close enough to smell him.

00:
37:39 I smell them in my sleep.

00:
37:42 After the last time out I made a kind of pact with myself.

00:
37:44 I'd do my job, but I wouldn't do the other anymore.

00:
37:49 Not if I could help it.

00:
37:52 And who gave you the right to make a private peace?

00:
37:56 You think you're the only one who's tired?

00:
38:00 I do my job, sir.

00:
38:01 Your job is to kill enemy soldiers.

00:
38:12 (radio buzzing) (continuous buzz) .. a code word.

00:
38:43 If we don't answer it, there will be a patrol here in no time.

00:
38:46 (man speaking German) Ja?

00:
38:51 Wo zum teufel bist du denn geblieben.

00:
38:54 Es ist schon funf nach zwei.

00:
38:56 miene uhr muss zu langsam gehen.

00:
39:00 Dann reguliert, du idiot.

00:
39:02 Ja, Ja.

00:
39:04 Alles in ordnung?

00:
39:05 Ja, ja, alles in ordnung.

00:
39:08 Bleibt wacht.

00:
39:09 Ja wohl.

00:
39:12 Wird gemacht.

00:
39:18 Let's pack the gear and get out of here.

00:
39:22 (alarm ringing) Let's go.

00:
39:50 Well?

00:
39:54 The major's leg is broken in two places.

00:
39:57 For all we know, he's hurt inside too.

00:
39:59 He needs proper medical attention.

00:
40:01 What do you suggest?

00:
40:02 If we leave him here the germans will take care of him.

00:
40:05 If he doesn't get sulfanilamide for his leg he doesn't stand a chance.

00:
40:10 so do i.

00:
40:13 We have two choices.

00:
40:14 Take him with us, and if he doesn't get help soon, he'll die or we can leave him here and he'll tell the germans everything.

00:
40:23 Roy? never.

00:
40:25 He might not be able to help himself.

00:
40:27 They have other drugs besides sulfa.

00:
40:30 All they have to do is shoot him with scopolamine and he'll tell them our whole plan, in detail.

00:
40:36 There is, of course, a third choice.

00:
40:39 better for him, better for us.

00:
40:43 You take that man along you endanger us all.

00:
40:45 Why don't we just drop him off the cliff and save a bullet?

00:
40:48 And why don't you shut up?

00:
40:51 Yes, there's a third choice.

00:
40:54 We'll make it if necessary when it's necessary and not before.

00:
41:03 Now let's get moving.

00:
41:05 Brown, from now on your job is to look after major franklin.

00:
41:12 I said move!

00:
42:22 Good morning.

00:
42:26 I'm sorry.

00:
42:27 Don't be silly.

00:
42:29 It's just bad luck.

00:
42:31 Well, what do we do now?

00:
42:34 Where are we?

00:
42:36 We're on our way.

00:
42:37 I'm going to hold you up.

00:
42:39 No, you won't.

00:
42:40 Anyway, the professor here won the toss.

00:
42:44 He's just dying to carry you aren't you, professor?

00:
42:46 That's right.

00:
42:47 You're nowhere near as heavy as I thought you were.

00:
42:50 You've got to leave me.

00:
42:54 You're out of your mind.

00:
42:57 It's radio time.

00:
42:58 Franklin: Well, it's all on your plate now.

00:
43:04 You'll never be able to thank me enough will you?

00:
43:08 I wanted the job all the time.

00:
43:35 Jensen: Hello, lucky.

00:
43:37 Hello, Lucky.

00:
43:39 Report my signals.

00:
43:40 Hello, george mike william.

00:
43:42 Hello, george mike william.

00:
43:42 Strength four. strength four. over.

00:
43:45 Hello, Lucky. This is most urgent.

00:
43:49 Paddington Station will close at midnight x minus one.

00:
43:53 Do you understand?

00:
43:54 X minus one. Over.

00:
43:57 We've lost a full day.

00:
44:00 Germans are going to hit kheros a day ahead of time.

00:
44:06 Gives us until midnight the day after tomorrow.

00:
44:10 (whistling) Message understood. message understood.

00:
44:14 Over and out.

00:
44:24 (whistling) I'd like to be alone with the major.

00:
45:35 Roy, that was foolish.

00:
45:40 You almost ruined everything.

00:
45:41 We've just heard from headquarters.

00:
45:42 We're canceled out.

00:
45:46 Scrubbed.

00:
45:48 What?

00:
45:48 They're going for an amphibious landing the day after tomorrow on the east coast.

00:
45:58 The turkish side.

00:
46:00 Turkish side?

00:
46:01 And they're coming in force.

00:
46:04 As far as we're concerned, the pressure's off.

00:
46:07 All we have to do is just make as much trouble as we can.

00:
46:11 By tonight, we'll have you in the hands of the underground.

00:
46:15 We'll have you taken care of.

00:
46:24 If you try this again I'll have andrea break your other leg.

00:
46:37 Man: Aufs gelaende verteilen.

00:
46:53 Good luck.

00:
46:54 Do not worry.

00:
46:55 I shall see you tonight at st. alexis.

00:
47:24 (whistle blows) . Absehweiten.

00:
47:33 (whistle blows) Schnell! feuer!

00:
49:00 Good evening, gentlemen.

00:
49:05 Obviously, this place has been used before.

00:
49:10 Any food around?

00:
49:14 .. no.

00:
49:17 Weren't you a little careless just now?

00:
49:18 We might have been anyone.

00:
49:21 Oh, no, no.

00:
49:21 I heard you coming five minutes ago.

00:
49:31 ..

00:
49:33 No!

00:
49:39 Mallory: Pappadimos.

00:
49:40 It's time to relieve andrea.

00:
49:42 I'll take it.

00:
49:45 No.

00:
49:49 Pappadimos, you go.

00:
50:32 (crackling) Maybe he brought us some food.

00:
50:58 Hold it. he might be faking.

00:
51:09 Saved.

00:
51:17 Woman: Don't move!

00:
51:21 Raise your hands!

00:
51:24 Raise your hands high!

00:
51:26 All of you!

00:
51:29 You with the food.

00:
51:31 Speak.

00:
51:33 Ich bich ein deutches soldat.

00:
51:38 You are not germans.

00:
51:42 Which of you is major franklin?

00:
51:45 The man on the stretcher.

00:
51:47 Who are you?

00:
51:48 My name is maria pappadimos.

00:
51:53 You may put your hands down.

00:
52:03 Pappadimos?

00:
52:05 They told us pappadimos was a man.

00:
52:08 My father.

00:
52:08 He was taken two days ago.

00:
52:10 He was taken?

00:
52:12 He told them nothing.

00:
52:14 He will die first.

00:
52:16 You have any sisters or brothers?

00:
52:18 A brother spyro in america.

00:
52:24 Oh, he's not as far away as all that.

00:
52:27 He's that handsome devil right over there.

00:
52:39 Spyro.

00:
52:44 What did you do that for?

00:
52:45 To remind you to write letters occasionally.

00:
52:48 There's a war on.

00:
52:50 I mean before the war.

00:
52:52 I promised myself I would do this the first time I ever saw you again.

00:
52:58 .. I'm sorry, brother.

00:
53:07 (woman moaning) Which of you did this?

00:
53:19 ..

00:
53:21 It was me.

00:
53:24 Who is she?

00:
53:25 She's my friend anna.

00:
53:26 She's one of us.

00:
53:27 It's bad that this happened to her.

00:
53:31 Before the germans came she was a schoolteacher in mandrakos.

00:
53:35 Last year she was caught.

00:
53:37 They tortured her to make her betray us.

00:
53:39 They whipped her until her bones showed.

00:
53:43 Some nights we could hear her screaming.

00:
53:46 Then they took her to the fortress and kept her there for six months.

00:
53:51 When they let her go she could not speak.

00:
53:57 She has never spoken since.

00:
53:59 Not even in her dreams.

00:
54:01 Even I have never been allowed to see the scars on her back.

00:
54:06 But she's a good fighter-- as good as any of you.

00:
54:09 Like a ghost, she goes anywhere.

00:
54:11 She got us these guns.

00:
54:12 She kills without mercy.

00:
54:15 You're very lucky, brother.

00:
54:24 (gasps) No!

00:
54:26 No, they're the friends.

00:
54:28 Ourfriends.

00:
54:32 (speaking Greek) (gunfire in distance) (bell ringing) Halte!

00:
55:32 Zwei in ie kirsche.

00:
55:33 Zwei rechts.

00:
55:34 Zwei voraus.

00:
55:36 (playing Greek music) Abeteilung halte!

00:
55:52 Drei rechts.

00:
55:54 Drei links.

00:
55:56 Abeteilung weiter.

00:
56:37 It's gangrene, sir.

00:
56:39 If the major's leg doesn't come off he's going to die.

00:
56:43 Does he know?

00:
56:44 I don't think so.

00:
56:52 Sir?

00:
56:55 Pardon me, but this is the first chance I've had to talk to you alone.

00:
56:59 I don't want to be left out anymore.

00:
57:01 I just want to be part of the team again.

00:
57:04 Please give me a chance.

00:
57:06 You can trust me.

00:
57:08 I'll think it over.

00:
57:15 That's gangrene.

00:
57:16 What choice do we have now, captain?

00:
57:18 Who relieved you?

00:
57:19 She did.

00:
57:20 In future will you take orders only from me?

00:
57:22 Yes, sir. I asked you a question,sir.

00:
57:24 And I heard you, corporal.

00:
57:28 Get yourself something to eat.

00:
57:30 That's an order.

00:
57:32 Thank you, sir.

00:
57:39 There's a lot of activity down there.

00:
57:42 I can hear it.

00:
57:44 Oh, they're turning mandrakos inside out.

00:
57:47 As soon as they move out, we're going to move in.

00:
57:50 We're going to get you to a doctor.

00:
57:52 .. you are doing well.

00:
57:57 Brown is a liar, and so are you.

00:
58:00 I haven't lost my sense of smell, you know.

00:
58:03 I just hope the doctor's a good surgeon.

00:
58:07 (chuckling) I wonder what old jensen would say.

00:
58:12 My luck seems to have changed, hasn't it?

00:
58:16 I don't suppose I'll ever be a general now.

00:
58:30 ..

00:
58:32 He's not a bad fellow.

00:
58:34 No, not bad at all.

00:
58:36 (plane engine revving) Mallory: Are you sure there's a tunnel out of that ravine?

00:
59:12 Yes. they'll never find us there.

00:
59:14 They found us here.

00:
59:15 Let's go! let's go!

00:
59:26 Man: Feuer!

00:
59:27 (mortar shells exploding) Keratathes!

01:
00:53 Oh, excuse me.

01:
00:54 Tipota.

01:
00:56 Where is this tunnel?

01:
00:58 Up here, sir.

01:
01:40 Where does this lead to?

01:
01:42 We'll come out just behind mandrakos.

01:
01:47 All right.

01:
01:48 Let's keep going.

01:
02:03 Anna?

01:
02:05 Anna!

01:
02:12 You're limping.

01:
02:14 Are you hurt?

01:
02:15 You need help?

01:
02:28 (Greek music playing) (whistling to music) Thank you, old bean.

01:
04:09 Get off your behinds.

01:
04:20 Do you think there's a fire escape here?

01:
04:27 Man: Macht auf!

01:
05:44 (music ends) (applauding) (speaking Greek) Ach komm hier ist koinplatz.

01:
06:19 ..

01:
06:27 Yalo, yalo.

01:
06:39 ♪♪Ees ton afron ees ton afron thalassas♪♪

01:
06:44 ♪♪es ayapee moo ee ayapee moo keematai♪♪

01:
06:50 ♪♪parakalo sas keemata♪♪

01:
06:55 ♪♪mee moo♪♪

01:
06:56 ♪♪teem xeepnate♪♪

01:
06:59 Everyone: ♪♪Yalo, yalo♪♪

01:
07:01 ♪♪peeyaname♪♪

01:
07:04 ♪♪ki olo te ithia leyame♪♪

01:
07:08 ..♪♪

01:
07:11 these are fine people.

01:
07:13 ♪♪Ya loya moo♪♪

01:
07:15 ♪♪na theemethees♪♪

01:
07:21 ♪♪na hamilo nahamilonan ta voona ♪♪

01:
07:26 ♪♪navlepa teen♪♪

01:
07:28 ♪♪navlepa teen annoola♪♪

01:
07:31 ♪♪navlepa to spita♪♪

01:
07:35 ♪♪ki moo nas prizee♪♪

01:
07:37 ♪♪stee vahoula♪♪

01:
07:40 Everyone: ♪♪Yalo, yalo♪♪

01:
07:43 ♪♪peeyaname♪♪

01:
07:45 ♪♪ki olo te ithia♪♪

01:
07:48 ♪♪leayma♪♪

01:
07:49 ♪♪yalo na pas♪♪

01:
07:51 ♪♪yalo narthees♪♪

01:
07:53 ..♪♪

01:
08:00 (singing dies out) Solider: Give up quietly, gentlemen unless you want a great many innocent people killed as well as yourselves.

01:
08:48 Bleiben sie vor der tur.

01:
08:52 Turn around, please.

01:
08:57 Captain mallory, my congratulations.

01:
08:59 You've made a remarkable effort.

01:
09:02 Unfortunately for you it was doomed from the beginning.

01:
09:05 Will you tell me where you've hidden your explosives?

01:
09:09 No.

01:
09:10 As your commanding officer captain mallory must play a heroic role.

01:
09:13 You needn't carry such a burden.

01:
09:16 You've all suffered a great deal.

01:
09:18 Why prolong that suffering?

01:
09:20 For you the war is over.

01:
09:23 ..

01:
09:25 A captain in the s.s.

01:
09:28 His methods, quite frankly, are most severe.

01:
09:33 Therefore, you must be considered as spies and you all know the penalty for espionage.

01:
09:38 If any one of you has the courage and intelligence to tell me where the explosives are I promise you will not only save your own life but the lives of your comrades.

01:
09:51 This will be your only chance, gentlemen.

01:
09:54 I do advise you to take it.

01:
09:56 ..

01:
09:57 Please, sir, I am no spy.

01:
09:59 I am not one of them.

01:
10:00 ..

01:
10:02 Lassen sie.

01:
10:07 Go on.

01:
10:09 ..

01:
10:11 .. I'm just a poor fisherman.

01:
10:15 ..

01:
10:16 They killed my sailors and stole my boat.

01:
10:19 They forced me to join them.

01:
10:22 Sir, I am their prisoner.

01:
10:24 Where did you learn your english, fisherman?

01:
10:26 In cyprus, sir.

01:
10:29 I swear to you it's true.

01:
10:31 ..

01:
10:34 Colonelstavrou?

01:
10:37 Oh, no. no, sir.

01:
10:38 My name is nondos salloonius.

01:
10:40 As I told you, I'm a fisherman from cyprus.

01:
10:46 Then how did you happen to wear a shoulder holster?

01:
10:49 ..

01:
10:52 They forced me to wear it and made it a kind of joke.

01:
10:57 And where are the explosives?

01:
10:59 ..

01:
11:01 I would tell you if I knew ..

01:
11:05 See, they didn't say.

01:
11:08 ..

01:
11:09 They don't trust me.

01:
11:11 I don't blame them.

01:
11:25 The commandant will telephone you shortly to congratulate you, muesel.

01:
11:29 Thank you.

01:
11:30 I've questioned them about the explosives but they refused to answer.

01:
11:33 The greek claims that he is not one of them.

01:
11:37 Gehen sie.

01:
11:38 You are not of this company, you say?

01:
11:41 Oh, no, sir.

01:
11:42 No, sir, I am not.

01:
11:43 You are a liar.

01:
11:48 ..

01:
11:49 A liar.

01:
11:54 Come, come. that didn't hurt.

01:
11:56 Where are the explosives?

01:
11:58 I don't know, your excellency.

01:
11:59 Your excellency I swear I do not know.

01:
12:03 I am not one of these men.

01:
12:04 They forced me to join them.

01:
12:06 As I explained ..

01:
12:09 I'm just a poor fisherman from cyprus.

01:
12:15 ..

01:
12:17 Nondos salloonius.

01:
12:19 ..

01:
12:22 These men, they stole my boat and they forced me to join them.

01:
12:27 ..

01:
12:28 Bringen sie ihn vorwartz.

01:
12:29 I am their prisoner.

01:
12:48 Hauptmann sessler!

01:
12:50 Halten sie ehren mund!

01:
12:58 Where are the explosives?

01:
13:01 I want an answer now.

01:
13:02 Otherwise, I shall personally rearrange this officer's splints.

01:
13:14 Very well.

01:
13:16 (gasps) (gagging) ..

01:
13:23 Stehen sie auf.

01:
13:25 (gagging) Stehen sie auf!

01:
13:27 Bevore diese verkrautzen!

01:
13:28 Get up!

01:
13:31 I'm sick, I'm sick.

01:
13:32 Get up!

01:
13:33 .. oh, I'm sick.

01:
13:34 Raus.

01:
13:36 Raus mitte der kerl bevore die luft verstinck.

01:
13:38 (gagging loudly) I'm sick.

01:
13:42 Please, I'm sick.

01:
13:43 I'm sick. I'm sick.

01:
13:54 Call the sentry in.

01:
14:00 Wache!

01:
14:07 Now, oberleutenant get on the phone.

01:
14:11 Tell them that you're not to be disturbed until you give further orders.

01:
14:21 ..

01:
14:22 ..

01:
14:25 Perfekte.

01:
14:37 Whew.

01:
14:37 Not very hygienic, I must say.

01:
14:39 Shocking taste in undies too.

01:
14:41 Oh, well.

01:
14:42 Heil, everybody.

01:
15:03 Well, roy we're going to leave you here.

01:
15:07 I understand.

01:
15:12 We're going to let them chase us around for a while.

01:
15:16 But one thing that they mustn't know is about the landing tomorrow night.

01:
15:23 Of course.

01:
15:26 Don't worry.

01:
15:31 Oh, thanks.

01:
15:34 Good luck.

01:
15:40 Mallory: Hold it.

01:
15:42 We're going to leave major franklin behind.

01:
15:48 He's a wounded officer.

01:
15:51 I expect him to get proper medical attention.

01:
15:53 Muesel: We don't make war on wounded men.

01:
15:59 We are not all like hauptmann sessler.

01:
16:04 Now, where's the camp radio station?

01:
16:07 I will not tell you.

01:
16:13 You wouldn't hesitate to kill me for any ..

01:
16:17 But not this one.

01:
16:19 In any event, I will not tell you.

01:
16:38 So long, roy.

01:
16:39 Good luck, keith.

01:
16:45 Well, lucky, I shall miss you.

01:
16:47 ..

01:
16:49 You will try to be a bad patient, won't you?

01:
16:52 Keep asking them for bedpans-- drives them mad.

01:
16:56 I'll keep it in mind.

01:
17:01 When this is over, we'll meet at simpson's.

01:
17:04 You can buy me lunch-- roast beef, yorkshire pudding, nice little red wine.

01:
17:08 Steak and kidney pie.

01:
17:10 Anything you say.

01:
17:11 You'll be paying for it.

01:
17:19 ..

01:
17:20 What a performance.

01:
17:24 All right.

01:
18:21 Well, I hope you were right to leave franklin with the germans.

01:
18:48 (tires squealing) Sir?

01:
19:06 Yes?

01:
19:07 No, not you, sir.

01:
19:08 Mr. stavrou.

01:
19:10 Hmm?

01:
19:11 Tell me about yourself.

01:
19:14 What do you want to know?

01:
19:16 Are you married?

01:
19:17 I have been married.

01:
19:19 My wife and children were killed.

01:
19:28 Have you killed many people?

01:
19:32 Only germans.

01:
19:34 Oh, some italians too.

01:
19:36 Captain mallory?

01:
19:38 Yes.

01:
19:39 You're a lucky man.

01:
19:41 Yes, I know.

01:
19:44 Mr. stavrou?

01:
19:45 Yes?

01:
19:47 I like you.

01:
19:52 I like you too.

01:
20:12 (bell ringing) (priests chanting) (speaking Greek) (priest speaking Greek) Yeah?

01:
20:52 ..

01:
20:54 Oh, baby face. who would have known you?

01:
20:57 You've got to get rid of that fuzz under your nose.

01:
21:00 Oh, no. I'm an officer now.

01:
21:01 Sorry, old bean.

01:
21:03 You picked the wrong uniform.

01:
21:04 (metallic clinking) Lights out in five minutes.

01:
21:10 I want you all to get as much rest as possible.

01:
21:12 The first thing in the morning we've got to ditch the truck and get hold of another car.

01:
21:18 Then we're going to pick up the explosives and go into navarone.

01:
21:23 We've got to be inside the fortress by 10:00 tomorrow night.

01:
21:27 Might one inquire how, sir?

01:
21:29 We're going to walk in.

01:
21:31 Simply because of this masquerade?

01:
21:34 No.

01:
21:37 Because I told franklin our orders had been changed.

01:
21:44 We weren't after their guns anymore.

01:
21:45 I told him we were just to create a diversion for a full-scale assault tomorrow night on the turkish side.

01:
21:52 If my hunch is right the germans will give him scopolamine before they operate and that's what he will tell them.

01:
22:00 They may not believe it but they'll be faced with the fact that he does.

01:
22:06 So I'm gambling that they'll clear out of navarone take up positions on the coast.

01:
22:12 Very clever.

01:
22:15 But that still leaves the garrison inside the fortress and we get them out by having andrea, pappadimos, and brown start up diversions all over navarone.

01:
22:29 If there's enough confusion going at the same time, the two girls will steal the fastest boat that they can find so we'll have a chance of getting out of here when this thing is over.

01:
22:45 Very clever,indeed.

01:
22:48 Suppose, just for the sake of argument they don't have any scopolamine?

01:
22:51 What happens then?

01:
22:53 Suppose they use the old-fashioned methods?

01:
22:57 Suppose your ventriloquist dummy just won't talk?

01:
23:01 He's a very good man.

01:
23:03 He won't be easy to break.

01:
23:05 He may suffer a lot before he tells them what you want him to.

01:
23:08 He may even die on them and tell them nothing at all.

01:
23:12 Have you considered that, captain?

01:
23:17 Yes, I've considered it.

01:
23:18 I'll bet you have.

01:
23:23 I'll bet you'd considered that as far back as the cliff.

01:
23:26 You and your three choices.

01:
23:29 I'll bet that's why you ordered us to drag that poor, dying, one-legged man around with us all this time.

01:
23:35 Even if he lives, he'll never be the same again.

01:
23:39 Do you know what you've done?

01:
23:41 You've used up an important human being.

01:
23:49 Oh, I misjudged you.

01:
23:50 .. you're rather a ruthless character captain mallory.

01:
23:58 I didn't think of it back on the cliff.

01:
24:01 ..

01:
24:03 I'd have done exactly the same thing.

01:
24:04 It's the only chance we've got to get the job done.

01:
24:07 The hell with the job!

01:
24:08 I've been on a hundred jobs.

01:
24:10 Not one of them's altered the course of the war.

01:
24:13 There will be 1,000 more wars until we kill each other off.

01:
24:16 I don't care about the war anymore.

01:
24:19 I care about roy.

01:
24:20 If turkey comes in on the wrong side?

01:
24:22 Let the whole bloody world come in and blow itself to pieces.

01:
24:26 And what about the 2,000 men on kheros?

01:
24:29 I don't know them but I do know the men on navarone.

01:
24:33 miller, the man was finished when he fell.

01:
24:37 That's easy for you to say, sitting there drinking coffee.

01:
24:54 You know, it's funny.

01:
24:55 I was grateful to you when you left him behind today.

01:
24:59 I just hope before this job's over that I get the chance to use you the way you've used him.

01:
25:08 I'm sorry, but I couldn't think of any other way.

01:
25:15 Everybody get a good night's sleep.

01:
25:17 No matter how it goes tomorrow, you're going to need it.

01:
25:26 I'll take the first watch.

01:
26:38 Hello.

01:
26:59 Tell me, schoolteacher from a purely moral point of view bearing in mind that we represent the side of goodness and civilization do you think that what I did to franklin was a civilized thing to do?

01:
28:08 (groaning) (screaming) Er ist ein verdammt schieriger bursche, herr general.

01:
28:22 Was sind sie dich fuer ein vien.

01:
28:26 Habt ihr scopalamin da?

01:
28:27 Man: Jawohl, herr general.

01:
28:28 Dann geben sie scopalamin.

01:
28:30 Sie konnen gehen?

01:
28:34 Jawohl, herr general.

01:
28:35 Scopalamin, nichts anderes verstanden?

01:
28:46 (bell ringing) Unser l.k.w. ist gusamm engebrochen.

01:
29:11 Schen sie zu.

01:
29:12 Ob sie ehn sofort ordnung bringen konnen.

01:
29:15 Die zwie idioten dort druben sind absolut hoffnungslos am besten wares sie an die ostrefront zu schucken ich bin ein guter mechaniker, herr oberleutnant.

01:
29:25 Ich werder ihnen in ordnung bringen.

01:
29:28 (engine starting) Passen sie auf.

01:
29:34 Hande hoch.

01:
29:40 (explosions) They are burning mandrakos in punishment.

01:
30:30 German soldier: Raus, raus, raus!

01:
32:39 This part of the town has been evacuated because the vibration of the guns has weakened the houses.

01:
33:40 Where will the attacks come?

01:
33:42 Where will the attacks come?

01:
33:44 On the turkish side.

01:
33:46 What time?

01:
33:48 Herr general, wenn sie mir nicht erabben sofort zu operiren wird dieser mann sterren.

01:
33:57 (siren starts blaring) (engines starting) Is the timetable clear?

01:
34:20 Any questions?

01:
34:22 Good luck.

01:
34:39 I won't be needing this.

01:
34:40 You take it.

01:
34:43 Spyro.

01:
34:46 Andrea?

01:
34:49 Yassu.

01:
34:53 Yassu,maria.

01:
34:55 Everybody stay exactly where you are.

01:
34:57 The party's over.

01:
35:00 Somebody stepped on the cake.

01:
35:03 Exhibit "a"-- a clockwork fuse-- elementary and archaic, but they work.

01:
35:08 Only this one won't work anymore.

01:
35:11 Do you know why?

01:
35:12 The clock's okay but the contact arm's been broken off.

01:
35:14 This clock could tick until christmas and it wouldn't set off a firecracker.

01:
35:21 Exhibit "b"-- exhibit "b" is missing.

01:
35:24 All my slow-burning fuses are gone, disappeared, vanished.

01:
35:29 Exhibit "c"-- my time pencils.

01:
35:32 75 Grains of fulminated mercury in each one of them.

01:
35:36 Enough to blow my hand off and very unstable.

01:
35:40 Very delicate.

01:
35:51 Which means that there is a traitor in this room.

01:
35:53 You're crazy. it must have happened at base.

01:
35:56 No, I'm not that crazy.

01:
35:57 I checked it all before I left the base.

01:
36:01 No, here. here.

01:
36:05 Someone here.

01:
36:09 But who?

01:
36:12 Who?

01:
36:13 There have only been two times when this stuff's been out of my sight.

01:
36:16 Once was when andrea and maria took it away to hide it but it was all right when we picked it up again.

01:
36:25 The only other time is when we left it in the back of the truck and all of us went to scout the gates.

01:
36:30 ..

01:
36:35 Except her.

01:
36:38 We left her on guard in the truck, alone.

01:
36:42 You are crazy, sir.

01:
36:44 Let me just think for a moment.

01:
36:52 Ever since we came here we've been jumping out of one frying pan into another, haven't we?

01:
36:56 Just think-- we're hiding ..

01:
37:01 She's up in a tree, remember?

01:
37:03 Anybody can signal to an aeroplane with a piece of tin or a hand mirror and they found us there.

01:
37:10 ..

01:
37:12 In the tunnel, she's lagging far behind with a shocking limp.

01:
37:16 Anybody seen her limping lately?

01:
37:17 But being back behind us, she could leave messages so when you take roy to the doctor the germans are waiting.

01:
37:25 When she takes us to her place, they come right there.

01:
37:28 But she got us out.

01:
37:29 That house would have been a shambles and she'd have got hers too.

01:
37:34 So what does she do?

01:
37:36 She disappears into the bedroom .. and to leave a note.

01:
37:42 Then she takes us to the wedding party and we're caught like rats in a trap because we can't get to our guns but even if we can, it means slaughtering half the population of mandrakos.

01:
37:51 Maria: You are an insane man.

01:
37:55 Am i?

01:
37:57 Maybe I am.

01:
37:59 Nothing would surprise me anymore.

01:
38:08 But we can settle this thing very easily.

01:
38:10 Let's see those scars the germans made on her back.

01:
38:14 Those terrible scars.

01:
38:19 How about it, maria?

01:
38:20 Don't you want to see those scars you've never seen?

01:
38:52 Q.e.d.

01:
39:12 You cannot believe?

01:
39:16 Believe it.

01:
39:19 I cannot stand pain.

01:
39:22 It's easy to be brave when you're free when you're with your friends but I was caught.

01:
39:29 The others were free, but they didn't help me.

01:
39:32 ..

01:
39:34 I was alone in their hands.

01:
39:38 They said they would put me into their brothels.

01:
39:42 They said they would torture me.

01:
39:47 I saw what they did to other people.

01:
39:58 I'm sorry.

01:
39:59 I cannot stand pain.

01:
40:06 ..

01:
40:10 Why didn't you put in with us?

01:
40:16 You could have come with us.

01:
40:19 It was your only chance to get free of them.

01:
40:22 There was never any chance.

01:
40:25 You never had any chance.

01:
40:27 It was hopeless from the beginning.

01:
40:30 You'll never get out of here-- never!

01:
40:34 I tried to tell you last night.

01:
40:43 (Anna crying) Can you do anything at all?

01:
40:56 I don't know.

01:
41:00 There's always some way to blow up explosives.

01:
41:03 The trick is not to be around when they go off.

01:
41:07 But aren't you forgetting something, captain?

01:
41:11 The lady.

01:
41:12 As I see it, we have three choices: One, we can leave her here but there's no guarantee she won't be found and they won't need a truth drug.

01:
41:21 Two, we could take her with us but that would make things more difficult.

01:
41:26 ..

01:
41:27 Well, that's andrea's choice remember?

01:
41:34 You really want your pound of flesh, don't you?

01:
41:37 Yes. yes, I do.

01:
41:40 You see, somehow, I just couldn't manage to get off to sleep last night.

01:
41:44 If you're so anxious to kill her, go ahead.

01:
41:46 Oh, I'm not anxious to kill her.

01:
41:48 I'm not anxious to kill anyone.

01:
41:50 See, I'm not a born soldier.

01:
41:53 I got trapped.

01:
41:55 You may find me facetious from time to time but if I didn't make some rather bad jokes I'd go out of my mind.

01:
42:02 No, I prefer to leave the killing to someone like you-- an officer and a gentleman, a leader of men, a hero.

01:
42:08 If you think I enjoy this, you're out of your mind.

01:
42:12 I never wanted it.

01:
42:13 I was trapped into it just like you.

01:
42:16 You wanted it-- you're an officer.

01:
42:18 I never let them make me an officer.

01:
42:20 I don't want the responsibility.

01:
42:21 Then you've had a free ride all this time.

01:
42:25 Someone'sgotto take the responsibility!

01:
42:27 !

01:
42:30 I don't know.

01:
42:33 I'm beginning to wonder who really is responsible when it comes to the dirty work-- the man who gives the order, or the one who has to do it?

01:
42:41 We have no time for this.

01:
42:42 Just a minute.

01:
42:44 If we're going to get this job done she has got to be killed.

01:
42:48 And we all know how keen you are on getting the job done.

01:
42:53 I can't speak for the others but I've never killed a woman before-- traitor or not-- and I'm finicky, so why don't you do it?

01:
43:00 Why don't you let us off for once?

01:
43:03 Come on, be a pal.

01:
43:04 Be a father to your men.

01:
43:06 Come down off that cross of yours close your eyes, think of england and pull the trigger.

01:
43:11 What do you say, sir?

01:
44:36 You all know what you're supposed to do.

01:
44:38 Get started.

01:
44:40 Brown, you go with maria.

01:
45:13 Now, miller you know that when you put on a uniform and learn how to do it it's not hard to kill someone.

01:
45:19 Sometimes, it's harder not to.

01:
45:22 You think that you've been getting away with it all this time.

01:
45:25 Standing by.

01:
45:26 Well, son, your bystanding days are over.

01:
45:31 You're in it now, up to your neck.

01:
45:34 They told me you're a genius with explosives.

01:
45:37 Start proving it.

01:
45:38 You've got me in the mood to use this thing and by god, if you don't think of something I'll use it on you.

01:
45:45 I mean it.

01:
45:48 Go on.

01:
46:20 (siren wailing) Alles bereit, herr general.

01:
47:18 (explosion) Halt! halt! halt!

01:
48:45 Los.

01:
48:47 Los.

01:
49:03 (siren wailing) ..

01:
49:14 Kourier, kourier, zuruck gehen.

01:
49:25 Wacht auf!

01:
49:26 (siren wailing) Schnell! schnell!

01:
49:41 Gehen an sie weg. gehen an sie weg.

01:
49:43 .. shnell!

01:
50:09 (radio playing German ballad) (radio playing German ballad) (explosion) Wass haben wir hier?

01:
51:16 Wass gibst?

01:
51:17 Keine ahnung es war aber eine grosse.

01:
51:30 (distant gunfire) You stay here.

01:
51:42 I'll call you if I need you.

01:
51:45 Whatever you say, sir.

01:
52:38 Man: Was war ist?

01:
53:08 Was machts du denn da, schlafst?

01:
53:12 Wo ist mein cafe?

01:
53:34 Mensch macht die vorhang zur los?

01:
53:39 Verzeihung.

01:
54:05 (alarm blaring) Herr general.

01:
56:14 Danke.

01:
56:16 Herr general?

01:
56:18 Ich fahre zur festung zuruck.

01:
56:21 Sie bleiben heir bis sie von mir hoeren.

01:
56:23 Zu befehlen auf die festung.

01:
57:10 Hilfe!

01:
57:11 Hilfe!

01:
58:21 Andrea: Spyro?

01:
58:24 Spyro?

01:
59:02 Detonator, sir, please.

01:
59:08 I'll be finished here in about 30 seconds.

01:
59:40 (drilling) Miller?

02:
00:04 Miller?

02:
00:16 Miller.

02:
00:17 Yes, what is it?

02:
00:29 What are you doing?

02:
00:30 They'll search those guns.

02:
00:31 They'll probably find my stuff.

02:
00:33 They're not stupid.

02:
00:35 If they should be careless they could bring about the same result.

02:
00:39 This is the job I'm banking on.

02:
00:42 This is our insurance.

02:
00:44 What happens?

02:
00:44 Would you mind bringing down the hoist, sir?

02:
00:58 That's enough.

02:
00:59 You see this bottom runner?

02:
01:00 The first time they send this hoist down for shells this runner should come to here.

02:
01:04 It will hit these two wires and we get a circuit.

02:
01:07 A circuit that will send up all my plastic explosives here plus this little item that I borrowed here.

02:
01:17 They won't see these wires when I slap on more grease.

02:
01:22 Are you sure it will work?

02:
01:24 No guarantee but the theory's perfectly feasible.

02:
01:27 If this stuff does go up then everything else is going to go right up with it.

02:
01:33 Suppose you don't get a contact?

02:
01:35 Then I shall be responsible for sinking one of his majesty's destroyers.

02:
01:40 Maybe the whole lot of them.

02:
01:42 I'm sorry, sir.

02:
01:43 It's the only way I know to get the job done.

02:
01:46 As you said, I'm in it now-- up to my neck.

02:
01:59 Hurry up.

02:
02:34 Go ahead.

02:
02:35 No, after you, sir.

02:
02:36 Remember, I can't swim.

02:
02:38 You won't let me drown, will you?

02:
04:23 (gunfire) ..

02:
05:30 I can't make it.

02:
05:32 My arm.

02:
05:41 Come on, man take it.

02:
05:45 Grab it.

02:
06:05 Zwei impuls auf achtzig grad.

02:
06:09 Entfernung sieben komma funf kilometres.

02:
06:12 Alarm geben.

02:
06:15 Zerstoerer maehern sich Ich wiederhole.

02:
06:19 Zerstoerer naehern sich.

02:
06:25 (speaking German) Halt!

02:
06:57 Zie, sie.

02:
06:59 Unter suchen sie dass.

02:
07:02 Versicht, herr general?

02:
07:09 (hissing) (high-pitched whining) Herr ober, hier ist noch eine.

02:
07:54 Weiter zuchen.

02:
08:03 Impuls eins in feuerbereich.

02:
08:06 Feind in feuerbereich.

02:
08:08 Feind in feuerbereich.

02:
08:10 Feind in feuerbereich.

02:
08:28 Feind in feuerbereich.

02:
08:29 Feind in feuerbereich.

02:
08:39 Spyro is dead, isn't he?

02:
08:44 What happened?

02:
08:48 He forgot why we came here.

02:
08:53 Batterie klar, herr general.

02:
08:55 .. neh men sie battrie bezetzen.

02:
08:58 Ya wohl, herr general.

02:
09:04 Batterie bezetzen.

02:
09:05 Minenraeumprupp meldet gescheutze klar zum gescheutze.

02:
09:08 An die geschaestze.

02:
09:11 An die geschaestze.

02:
09:13 (alarm blaring) Verschluss einfahren.

02:
10:29 Verschluss einfahren.

02:
10:31 (bell ringing) Fertig zum feuern.

02:
10:41 Schwing auf acht und zwanzig.

02:
10:55 Acht auf.

02:
11:19 Achtung-- fertig.

02:
11:25 Feuer.

02:
11:33 (shell whistling) Neunzig grad.

02:
11:46 Neunzig grad.

02:
12:03 Feuer.

02:
12:25 Feuer.

02:
12:43 (glass breaking) (ship's alarm sounding) (ships' alarms sounding) (men cheering) And now you're going back to crete.

02:
14:24 Yes.

02:
14:27 Come with us.

02:
14:30 Withus?

02:
14:33 With me.

02:
14:34 I must go back.

02:
14:36 You saw what the germans did to mandrakos.

02:
14:39 Navarone will pay heavily for your success tonight.

02:
14:50 Come on, I'll give you a hand.

02:
14:52 I'm going back.

02:
14:55 The job is finished.

02:
14:57 Your job is finished.

02:
15:00 What chance do you think you have of staying alive back there?

02:
15:03 Well, I'm not so easy to kill.

02:
15:13 Hey.

02:
15:47 Well, the boys on kheros will be happy soon.

02:
15:52 Of course it will be a bit crowded but there's nothing like an ocean voyage.

02:
15:56 Fresh air, good food, deck sports, pretty girls.

02:
16:07 I'd like to offer you my apology, sir and my congratulations.

02:
16:21 To tell you the truth I didn't think we could do it.

02:
16:24 To tell you the truth, neither did i.

02:
16:37 Chorus: ♪♪Here's to the gallant men♪♪

02:
16:43 ♪♪mission accomplished♪♪

02:
16:44 ♪♪farewell my friends♪♪

02:
16:48 ♪♪and so the legend ends♪♪

02:
16:51 ♪♪farewell, miller, brown, and mallory♪♪

02:
16:57 ♪♪young pappadimos, franklin, and stavrou♪♪

02:
17:02 ..♪♪

02:
18:08 spent a great deal of time filming in an ice-cold water tank, so to keep them warm and keep their spirits up, brandy was readily available, which led to some rather drunk actors by the end of the day -- except for gregory peck.

02:
18:22 According to david niven, peck could drink brandy all day and not drop a line or slur a syllable.

02:
18:27 It was, in david niven's words, "disgusting to see a man hold his liquor " 17 years later, you know, a belated sequel to this film was made.

02:
18:36 That was in 1978 and the sequel was called force ten from navarone, with robert shaw and edward fox playing the roles we saw done in our movie by peck and niven -- but it wasn't nearly as successful as the original.

02:
18:49 Now richard harris, who we just saw early in his film career playing squadron leader barnsby, is the actor linked to our next film which was one of his last movies.

02:
18:58 This time he's an aging roman emperor going outside his family to choose his successor.

02:
19:25 ''''''''''''''W'www richard harris is back in action in our next film although he's not the one engaged in the action.

02:
39:04 He's the emperor of rome in 180 a.d.

02:
39:08 And you know emperors.

02:
39:09 They decide whose head will be lopped off or who's gonna be fed to the lions, but they pretty much sit on their thrones and let others do the hard stuff.

02:
39:18 And the one who does the nitty gritty in our next film is russell crowe, our film being director ridley scott's epic from the year 2000,gladiator.

02:
39:26 Winner of the oscar as the best picture of 2000, with russell crowe also winning as that year's best actor.

02:
39:33 He plays maximus, the trusted general serving under the emperor marcus aurelius who has decided maximus should be his successor -- not the emperor's son, commodus, who is played by joaquin phoenix.

02:
39:46 But, not surprisingly, that decision doesn't sit well with the son, who's a schemer who then hatches a plan to have maximus murdered.

02:
39:54 All of this ultimately leading to maximus running afoul of slave traders and his ending up as a gladiator who has to battle opponents to the death as part of a spectator sport.

02:
40:04 He does that, but always keeps his focus on one goal -- revenge against the emperor's nasty son.

02:
40:10 When this film was released, it took everyone by surprise.

02:
40:14 For one thing, epic movies like this involving togas, sandals, and slaves such asben-hur andspartacus -- had pretty much disappeared from the screen.

02:
40:23 Also, director ridley scott had most recently been making smaller sized projects such aswhite squallandg.i.

02:
40:27 Jane.

02:
40:30 So his doing a big epic likegladiatorwas not only a surprise, but a revelation since it's so intense, powerful, and full of breathtaking action.

02:
40:40 The public loved it, too, the film earning back a third of its $100-million budget in its opening weekend alone, after which eventually came 12 oscar nominations, and a final tally of five academy awards.

02:
40:54 Here it is, also with oliver reed and derek jacobi, from 2000gladiator.

02:
43:13 [ Children Laughing ] [ Wind Blowing ] [ Horse Whinnies ] [ Whinnying ] [ Men Shouting ] [ Horses Whinnying ] - Sir. -General.

02:
44:37 -General. - Sir.

02:
44:39 General.

02:
44:41 - Sir. - General.

02:
44:44 General.

02:
44:45 [ Man Shouts ] Sir.

Carl Foreman, CBE (July 23, 1914 – June 26, 1984) was an American screenwriter and film producer who wrote the award-winning films The Bridge on the River Kwai and High Noon among others. He was one of the screenwriters that were blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s because of their suspected Communist sympathy or membership in the Communist Party. more&hellip

Submitted by acronimous on August 17, 2017

Discuss this script with the community:

Report Comment

We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.
If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly.


Contents

The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in a series of twelve caves around the site originally known as the "Ein Feshkha Caves" near the Dead Sea in the West Bank (then part of Jordan) between 1946 and 1956 by Bedouin shepherds and a team of archeologists. [16] The practice of storing worn-out sacred manuscripts in earthenware vessels buried in the earth or within caves is related to the ancient Jewish custom of Genizah.

Initial discovery (1946–1947)

The initial discovery by Bedouin shepherd Muhammed edh-Dhib, his cousin Jum'a Muhammed, and Khalil Musa, took place between November 1946 and February 1947. [17] [18] The shepherds discovered seven scrolls (See Scrolls and fragments) housed in jars in a cave near what is now known as the Qumran site. John C. Trever reconstructed the story of the scrolls from several interviews with the Bedouin. Edh-Dhib's cousin noticed the caves, but edh-Dhib himself was the first to actually fall into one (the cave now called Cave 1). He retrieved a handful of scrolls, which Trever identifies as the Isaiah Scroll, Habakkuk Commentary, and the Community Rule, and took them back to the camp to show to his family. None of the scrolls were destroyed in this process. [19] The Bedouin kept the scrolls hanging on a tent pole while they figured out what to do with them, periodically taking them out to show to their people. At some point during this time, the Community Rule was split in two. The Bedouin first took the scrolls to a dealer named Ibrahim 'Ijha in Bethlehem. 'Ijha returned them, saying they were worthless, after being warned that they might have been stolen from a synagogue. Undaunted, the Bedouin went to a nearby market, where a Syrian Christian offered to buy them. A sheikh joined their conversation and suggested they take the scrolls to Khalil Eskander Shahin, "Kando", a cobbler and part-time antiques dealer. The Bedouin and the dealers returned to the site, leaving one scroll with Kando and selling three others to a dealer for 7 Jordanian pounds (approximately $28, or $325 in 2020 dollars). [19] [20] The original scrolls continued to change hands after the Bedouin left them in the possession of a third party until a sale could be arranged. (See Ownership.)

In 1947 the original seven scrolls caught the attention of John C. Trever, of the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR), who compared the script in the scrolls to that of the Nash Papyrus, the oldest biblical manuscript then known, and found similarities between them. In March the 1948 Arab–Israeli War prompted the move of some of the scrolls to Beirut, Lebanon, for safekeeping. On 11 April 1948, Millar Burrows, head of the ASOR, announced the discovery of the scrolls in a general press release.

Search for the Qumran caves (1948–1949)

Early in September 1948, Metropolitan bishop Mar Samuel brought some additional scroll fragments that he had acquired to Professor Ovid R. Sellers, the new Director of ASOR. By the end of 1948, nearly two years after their discovery, scholars had yet to locate the original cave where the fragments had been found. With unrest in the country at that time, no large-scale search could be undertaken safely. Sellers tried to get the Syrians to assist in the search for the cave, but he was unable to pay their price. In early 1949, the government of Jordan gave permission to the Arab Legion to search the area where the original Qumran cave was thought to be. Consequently, Cave 1 was rediscovered on 28 January 1949, by Belgian United Nations observer Captain Phillipe Lippens and Arab Legion Captain Akkash el-Zebn. [21]

Qumran caves rediscovery and new scroll discoveries (1949–1951)

The rediscovery of what became known as "Cave 1" at Qumran prompted the initial excavation of the site from 15 February to 5 March 1949 by the Jordanian Department of Antiquities led by Gerald Lankester Harding and Roland de Vaux. [22] The Cave 1 site yielded discoveries of additional Dead Sea Scroll fragments, linen cloth, jars, and other artifacts. [23]

Excavations of Qumran and new cave discoveries (1951–1956, 2017, 2021)

In November 1951, Roland de Vaux and his team from the ASOR began a full excavation of Qumran. [24] By February 1952, the Bedouin had discovered 30 fragments in what was to be designated Cave 2. [25] The discovery of a second cave eventually yielded 300 fragments from 33 manuscripts, including fragments of Jubilees and the Wisdom of Sirach written in Hebrew. [23] [24] The following month, on 14 March 1952, the ASOR team discovered a third cave with fragments of Jubilees and the Copper Scroll. [25] Between September and December 1952 the fragments and scrolls of Caves 4, 5, and 6 were subsequently discovered by the ASOR teams. [24]

With the monetary value of the scrolls rising as their historical significance was made more public, the Bedouins and the ASOR archaeologists accelerated their search for the scrolls separately in the same general area of Qumran, which was over 1 kilometer in length. Between 1953 and 1956, Roland de Vaux led four more archaeological expeditions in the area to uncover scrolls and artifacts. [23] Cave 11 was discovered in 1956 and yielded the last fragments to be found in the vicinity of Qumran. [26]

Caves 4–10 are clustered in an area lying in relative proximity 160 yards (ca. 150 metres) from Khirbet Qumran, while caves 1, 2, 3 and 11 are located 1 mile (1–2 kilometres) North, with Cave 3 being the most remote. [27] [28]

In February 2017, Hebrew University archaeologists announced the discovery of a new, 12th cave. [29] There was one blank parchment found in a jar however, broken and empty scroll jars and pickaxes suggest that the cave was looted in the 1950s. [30]

In March 2021, Israeli archaeologists announced the discovery of dozens of fragments bearing biblical text, written in Greek from the books of Zechariah and Nahum. This particular group of findings are believed to have been hidden in a cave between 132 and 136 CE during the Bar Kokhba revolt. [31] However, a 10,500-year-old basket made of woven reeds was also discovered in the Muraba'at caves in the Nahal Darga Reserve. Other discoveries were remains of a child wrapped in cloth dated to around 6,000 years ago, and cache of coins from the days of the Bar Kochba revolt. [32]

The 972 manuscripts found at Qumran were found primarily in two separate formats: as scrolls and as fragments of previous scrolls and texts. In the fourth cave the fragments were torn into up to 15,000 pieces. These small fragments created somewhat of a problem for scholars. G.L. Harding, director of the Jordanian Department of Antiquities, began working on piecing the fragments together but did not finish this before his death in 1979. [33]

Cave 1

The original seven scrolls from Cave 1 at Qumran are the Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa a ), a second copy of Isaiah (1QIsa b ), the Community Rule Scroll (1QS), the Pesher Habakkuk (1QpHab), the War Scroll (1QM), the Thanksgiving Hymns (1QH), and the Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen). [34]

Cave 2

Late Hasmonean or Early Herodian

Cave 3

Caves 4a and 4b

Cave 4 was discovered in August 1952, and was excavated on 22–29 September 1952 by Gerald Lankester Harding, Roland de Vaux, and Józef Milik. [25] [129] Cave 4 is actually two hand-cut caves (4a and 4b), but since the fragments were mixed, they are labeled as 4Q. Cave 4 is the most famous of Qumran caves both because of its visibility from the Qumran plateau and its productivity. It is visible from the plateau to the south of the Qumran settlement. It is by far the most productive of all Qumran caves, producing ninety percent of the Dead Sea Scrolls and scroll fragments (approx. 15,000 fragments from 500 different texts), including 9–10 copies of Jubilees, along with 21 tefillin and 7 mezuzot.

Transitional: Archaic to Hasmonean

Transitional: Hasmonean to Early Herodian

Transitional: Hasmonean to Herodian

Late Hasmonean or Early Herodian

Archaic Paleo-Hebrew script

Numbers 24:15–17 Joshua 6:26, quoted in Psalms of Joshua (4Q379, frag. 22)

Cave 5

Cave 5 was discovered alongside Cave 6 in 1952, shortly after the discovery of Cave 4. Cave 5 produced approximately 25 manuscripts. [25]

Cave 6

Cave 6 was discovered alongside Cave 5 in 1952, shortly after the discovery of Cave 4. Cave 6 contained fragments of about 31 manuscripts. [25]

List of groups of fragments collected from Wadi Qumran Cave 6: [376] [377]

Cave 7

Cave 7 yielded fewer than 20 fragments of Greek documents, including 7Q2 (the "Letter of Jeremiah" = Baruch 6), 7Q5 (which became the subject of much speculation in later decades), and a Greek copy of a scroll of Enoch. [409] [410] [411] Cave 7 also produced several inscribed potsherds and jars. [412]

Lists of groups of fragments collected from Wadi Qumran Cave 7: [376] [377]

Cave 8

Cave 8, along with caves 7 and 9, was one of the only caves that are accessible by passing through the settlement at Qumran. Carved into the southern end of the Qumran plateau, cave 8 was excavated by archaeologists in 1957.

Cave 8 produced five fragments: Genesis (8QGen), Psalms (8QPs), a tefillin fragment (8QPhyl), a mezuzah (8QMez), and a hymn (8QHymn). [419] Cave 8 also produced several tefillin cases, a box of leather objects, tons of lamps, jars, and the sole of a leather shoe. [412]

List of groups of fragments collected from Wadi Qumran Cave 8: [376] [377]

Deuteronomy 6:4–5 6:1–3 10:20–22 10:12–19 5:1–14 10:13 11:2–3 10:21–22 11:1 11:6–12

Cave 9

Cave 9, along with caves 7 and 8, was one of the only caves that are accessible by passing through the settlement at Qumran. Carved into the southern end of the Qumran plateau, Cave 9 was excavated by archaeologists in 1957. There was only one fragment found in Cave 9.

Cave 10

In Cave 10 archaeologists found two ostraca with writing on them, along with an unknown symbol on a grey stone slab.

Cave 11

Cave 11 was discovered in 1956 and yielded 21 texts, some of which were quite long. The Temple Scroll, so called because more than half of it pertains to the construction of the Temple of Jerusalem, was found in Cave 11, and is by far the longest scroll. It is now 26.7 feet (8.15 m) long. Its original length may have been over 28 feet (8.75 m). The Temple Scroll was regarded by Yigael Yadin as "The Torah According to the Essenes". On the other hand, Hartmut Stegemann, a contemporary and friend of Yadin, believed the scroll was not to be regarded as such, but was a document without exceptional significance. Stegemann notes that it is not mentioned or cited in any known Essene writing. [421]

Also in Cave 11, an eschatological fragment about the biblical figure Melchizedek (11Q13) was found. Cave 11 also produced a copy of Jubilees, and a proto-Masoteric text of the Torah scroll (only a fragment of the Book of Leviticus surviving), known as the Paleo-Hebrew Leviticus scroll.

According to former chief editor of the DSS editorial team John Strugnell, there are at least four privately owned scrolls from Cave 11, that have not yet been made available for scholars. Among them is a complete Aramaic manuscript of the Book of Enoch. [422]

List of groups of fragments collected from Wadi Qumran Cave 11:

Late Hasmonean or Early Herodian

Cave 12

Cave 12 was discovered in February 2017 on cliffs west of Qumran, near the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea. [29] Archaeological examination found pickaxes and empty broken scroll jars, indicating that the cave had been discovered and looted in the 1950s. One of the joint Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Liberty University of Virginia project's lead researchers, Dr. Oren Gutfeld, stated, "Although at the end of the day no scroll was found, and instead we 'only' found a piece of parchment rolled up in a jug that was being processed for writing, the findings indicate beyond any doubt that the cave contained scrolls that were stolen." [30]

Fragments with unknown provenance

Some fragments of scrolls have neither significant archaeological provenance nor records that reveal in which designated Qumran cave area they were found. They are believed to have come from Wadi Qumran caves, but are just as likely to have come from other archaeological sites in the Judaean Desert area. [426] These fragments have therefore been designated to the temporary "X" series.

Fragment/Scroll # Fragment/Scroll Name KJV Bible Association Description
XQ1-3 "Tefillin from Qumran" Deuteronomy 5:1 – 6:3 10:12 – 11:12. [426] First published in 1969 Phylacteries
XQ4 "Tefillin from Qumran" Phylacteries
XQ5 a Jubilees 7:4–5
XQ5 b Hymn
XQ6 Offering Small fragment with only one word in Aramaic.
XQ7 Unidentified fragment Strong possibility that it is part of 4QInstruction.
XQpapEn Book of Enoch 9:1 One small fragment written in Hebrew. = XQ8

Gallery

Dead Sea Scroll 175, complete, Testimonia, from Qumran Cave 4, the Jordan Museum in Amman

Dead Sea Scroll 28a from Qumran Cave 1, complete, the Jordan Museum in Amman

A portion of the second discovered copy of the Isaiah scroll, 1QIsa b .

Part of Dead Sea Scroll 28a from Qumran Cave 1. The Jordan Museum, Amman

Dead Sea Scroll, Pesher Isaiah, from Qumran Cave 4. The Jordan Museum, Amman

Dead Sea Scroll 175, Testimonia, from Qumran Cave 4. The Jordan Museum, Amman

Dead Sea Scroll 109, Qohelet or Ecclesiastes, from Qumran Cave 4. The Jordan Museum, Amman

Dead Sea Scrolls at the Jordan Museum in Amman

Strips of the Copper Dead Sea Scroll at the Jordan Museum, from Qumran Cave 3, 1st century CE

Strip 11 of the Copper Dead Sea Scroll, from Qumran Cave 3, Jordan Museum

Strip 15 of the Copper Dead Sea Scroll, from Qumran Cave 3, Jordan Museum

Strip 13 of the Copper Dead Sea Scroll, from Qumran Cave 3, Jordan Museum

Strips 1 and 2 of the Copper Dead Sea Scroll, from Qumran Cave 3, Jordan Museum

Dead Sea Scroll 109, Qohelet or Ecclesiastes, from Qumran Cave 4, the Jordan Museum in Amman

Dead Sea Scroll 109, Qohelet or Ecclesiastes, from Qumran Cave 4, at the Jordan Museum in Amman

Dead Sea Scroll, Pesher Isaiah, from Qumran Cave 4, the Jordan Museum in Amman

Dead Sea Scroll 175, Testimonia, from Qumran Cave 4, the Jordan Museum in Amman

Detail, Dead Sea Scroll 175, Testimonia, from Qumran Cave 4, the Jordan Museum in Amman

Dead Sea Scroll 28a from Qumran Cave 1, the Jordan Museum in Amman

Part of Dead Sea Scroll 28a from Qumran Cave 1, the Jordan Museum in Amman

Part of Dead Sea Scroll 28a from Qumran Cave 1, at the Jordan Museum in Amman

Dead Sea Scroll fragment 5/6HEV PS found in the Cave of Letters at Nahal Hever

There has been much debate about the origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The dominant theory remains that the scrolls were produced by the Essenes, a sect of Jews living at nearby Qumran, but this theory has come to be challenged by several modern scholars. [427]

Qumran–Essene theory

The view among scholars, almost universally held until the 1990s, is the "Qumran–Essene" hypothesis originally posited by Roland Guérin de Vaux [428] and Józef Tadeusz Milik, [429] though independently both Eliezer Sukenik and Butrus Sowmy of St Mark's Monastery connected scrolls with the Essenes well before any excavations at Qumran. [430] The Qumran–Essene theory holds that the scrolls were written by the Essenes, or by another Jewish sectarian group, residing at Khirbet Qumran. They composed the scrolls and ultimately hid them in the nearby caves during the Jewish Revolt sometime between 66 and 68 CE. The site of Qumran was destroyed and the scrolls never recovered. A number of arguments are used to support this theory.

  • There are striking similarities between the description of an initiation ceremony of new members in the Community Rule and descriptions of the Essene initiation ceremony mentioned in the works of Flavius Josephus – a Jewish–Roman historian of the Second Temple Period.
  • Josephus mentions the Essenes as sharing property among the members of the community, as does the Community Rule.
  • During the excavation of Khirbet Qumran, two inkwells and plastered elements thought to be tables were found, offering evidence that some form of writing was done there. More inkwells were discovered nearby. De Vaux called this area the "scriptorium" based upon this discovery.
  • Several Jewish ritual baths (Hebrew: miqvah = מקוה) were discovered at Qumran, offering evidence of an observant Jewish presence at the site. (a geographer writing after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE) describes a group of Essenes living in a desert community on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea near the ruined town of 'Ein Gedi.

Qumran–Sectarian theory

Qumran–Sectarian theories are variations on the Qumran–Essene theory. The main point of departure from the Qumran–Essene theory is hesitation to link the Dead Sea Scrolls specifically with the Essenes. Most proponents of the Qumran–Sectarian theory understand a group of Jews living in or near Qumran to be responsible for the Dead Sea Scrolls, but do not necessarily conclude that the sectarians are Essenes.

A specific variation on the Qumran–Sectarian theory that has gained much recent popularity is the work of Lawrence H. Schiffman, who proposes that the community was led by a group of Zadokite priests (Sadducees). [431] The most important document in support of this view is the "Miqsat Ma'ase Ha-Torah" (4QMMT), which cites purity laws (such as the transfer of impurities) identical to those attributed in rabbinic writings to the Sadducees. 4QMMT also reproduces a festival calendar that follows Sadducee principles for the dating of certain festival days.

Christian origin theory

Spanish Jesuit José O'Callaghan Martínez argued in the 1960s that one fragment (7Q5) preserves a portion of text from the New Testament Gospel of Mark 6:52–53. [432] This theory was scrutinized in the year 2000 by paleographic analysis of the particular fragment. However, this faced some contention, and O'Callaghan's theory remains an area of great dispute. Later analyses in 2004 and 2018, have lent credence to O'Callaghan's original assertion.

Robert Eisenman has advanced the theory that some scrolls describe the early Christian community. Eisenman also argued that the careers of James the Just and Paul the Apostle correspond to events recorded in some of these documents. [433]

Jerusalem origin theory

Some scholars have argued that the scrolls were the product of Jews living in Jerusalem, who hid the scrolls in the caves near Qumran while fleeing from the Romans during the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE. [434] Karl Heinrich Rengstorf first proposed that the Dead Sea Scrolls originated at the library of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. [435] Later, Norman Golb suggested that the scrolls were the product of multiple libraries in Jerusalem, and not necessarily the Jerusalem Temple library. [436] [437] Proponents of the Jerusalem Origin theory point to the diversity of thought and handwriting among the scrolls as evidence against a Qumran origin of the scrolls. Several archaeologists have also accepted an origin of the scrolls other than Qumran, including Yizhar Hirschfeld [438] and more recently Yizhak Magen and Yuval Peleg, [439] who all understand the remains of Qumran to be those of a Hasmonean fort that was reused during later periods.

Radiocarbon dating

Parchment from a number of the Dead Sea Scrolls has been carbon dated. The initial test performed in 1950 was on a piece of linen from one of the caves. This test gave an indicative dating of 33 CE plus or minus 200 years, eliminating early hypotheses relating the scrolls to the medieval period. [440] Since then two large series of tests have been performed on the scrolls themselves. The results were summarized by VanderKam and Flint, who said the tests give "strong reason for thinking that most of the Qumran manuscripts belong to the last two centuries BCE and the first century CE." [20] : 32

Paleographic dating

Analysis of letter forms, or palaeography, was applied to the texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls by a variety of scholars in the field. Major linguistic analysis by Cross and Avigad dates fragments from 225 BCE to 50 CE. [441] These dates were determined by examining the size, variability, and style of the text. [442] The same fragments were later analyzed using radiocarbon dating and were dated to an estimated range of 385 BCE to 82 CE with a 68% accuracy rate. [441]

Ink and parchment

The scrolls were analyzed using a cyclotron at the University of California, Davis, where it was found that all black ink was carbon black. [443] The red ink on the scrolls was found to be made with cinnabar (HgS, mercury sulfide). [444] There are only four uses of this red ink in the entire collection of Dead Sea Scroll fragments. [444] The black inks found on the scrolls are mostly made of carbon soot from olive oil lamps. [445] Honey, oil, vinegar, and water were often added to the mixture to thin the ink to a proper consistency for writing. [445] Galls were sometimes added to the ink to make it more resilient. [445] In order to apply the ink to the scrolls, its writers used reed pens. [446]

The Dead Sea scrolls were written on parchment made of processed animal hide known as vellum (approximately 85.5–90.5% of the scrolls), papyrus (estimated at 8.0–13.0% of the scrolls), and sheets of bronze composed of about 99.0% copper and 1.0% tin (approximately 1.5% of the scrolls). [446] [447] For those scrolls written on animal hides, scholars with the Israeli Antiquities Authority, by use of DNA testing for assembly purposes, believe that there may be a hierarchy in the religious importance of the texts based on which type of animal was used to create the hide. Scrolls written on goat and calf hides are considered by scholars to be more significant in nature, while those written on gazelle or ibex are considered to be less religiously significant in nature. [448]

In addition, tests by the National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Sicily, Italy, have suggested that the origin of parchment of select Dead Sea Scroll fragments is from the Qumran area itself, by using X-ray and Particle-induced X-ray emission testing of the water used to make the parchment that were compared with the water from the area around the Qumran site. [449]

Preservation

The Dead Sea Scrolls that were found were originally preserved by the dry, arid, and low humidity conditions present within the Qumran area adjoining the Dead Sea. [450] In addition, the lack of the use of tanning materials on the parchment of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the very low airflow in the Qumran caves also contributed significantly to their preservation. [451] Some of the scrolls were found stored in clay jars within the Qumran caves, further helping to preserve them from deterioration. The original handling of the scrolls by archaeologists and scholars was done inappropriately, and, along with their storage in an uncontrolled environment, they began a process of more rapid deterioration than they had experienced at Qumran. [452] During the first few years in the late 1940s and early 1950s, adhesive tape used to join fragments and seal cracks caused significant damage to the documents. [452] The Government of Jordan had recognized the urgency of protecting the scrolls from deterioration and the presence of the deterioration among the scrolls. [453] However, the government did not have adequate funds to purchase all the scrolls for their protection and agreed to have foreign institutions purchase the scrolls and have them held at their museum in Jerusalem until they could be "adequately studied". [453]

In early 1953, they were moved to the Palestine Archaeological Museum (commonly called the Rockefeller Museum) [454] in East Jerusalem and through their transportation suffered more deterioration and damage. [20] : 63–65 The museum was underfunded and had limited resources with which to examine the scrolls, and, as a result, conditions of the "scrollery" and storage area were left relatively uncontrolled by modern standards. [20] The museum had left most of the fragments and scrolls lying between window glass, trapping the moisture in with them, causing an acceleration in the deterioration process. During a portion of the conflict during the 1956 war waged by Israel, Britain and France against Egypt, the scrolls collection of the Palestine Archaeological Museum was stored in the vault of the Ottoman Bank in Amman, Jordan. [455] Damp conditions from temporary storage of the scrolls in the Ottoman Bank vault from 1956 to the Spring of 1957 led to a more rapid rate of deterioration of the scrolls. The conditions caused mildew to develop on the scrolls and fragments, and some fragments were partially destroyed or made illegible by the glue and paper of the manila envelopes in which they were stored while in the vault. [455] By 1958 it was noted that up to 5% of some of the scrolls had completely deteriorated. [453] Many of the texts had become illegible and many of the parchments had darkened considerably. [20] [452]

Until the 1970s, the scrolls continued to deteriorate because of poor storage arrangements, exposure to different adhesives, and being trapped in moist environments. [452] Fragments written on parchment (rather than papyrus or bronze) in the hands of private collectors and scholars suffered an even worse fate than those in the hands of the museum, with large portions of fragments being reported to have disappeared by 1966. [456] In the late 1960s, the deterioration was becoming a major concern with scholars and museum officials alike. Scholars John Allegro and Sir Francis Frank were among the first to strongly advocate for better preservation techniques. [20] Early attempts made by both the British and Israel Museums to remove the adhesive tape ended up exposing the parchment to an array of chemicals, including "British Leather Dressing," and darkening some of them significantly. [20] In the 1970s and 1980s, other preservation attempts were made that included removing the glass plates and replacing them with cardboard and removing pressure against the plates that held the scrolls in storage however, the fragments and scrolls continued to rapidly deteriorate during this time. [452]

In 1991, the Israeli Antiquities Authority established a temperature-controlled laboratory for the storage and preservation of the scrolls. The actions and preservation methods of Rockefeller Museum staff were concentrated on the removal of tape, oils, metals, salt, and other contaminants. [452] The fragments and scrolls are preserved using acid-free cardboard and stored in solander boxes in the climate-controlled storage area. [452]

Nine tiny phylactery slips were rediscovered by the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) in 2014, after they had been stored unopened for six decades following their excavation in 1952. The IAA is preparing to unroll the phylacteries or tefillin once a safe procedure has been decided upon. [457] [458]

Since the Dead Sea Scrolls were initially held by different parties during and after the excavation process, they were not all photographed by the same organization.

First photographs by the American Schools of Oriental Research (1948)

The first individual person to photograph a portion of the collection was John C. Trever (1916–2006), a Biblical scholar and archaeologist, who was a resident for the American Schools of Oriental Research. [20] : 68 He photographed three of the scrolls discovered in Cave 1 on 21 February 1948, both on black-and-white and standard color film. [20] : 26 [459] [460] Although an amateur photographer, the quality of his photographs often exceeded the visibility of the scrolls themselves as, over the years, the ink of the texts quickly deteriorated after they were removed from their linen wrappings.

Infrared photography and plate assembly by the Palestine Archaeological Museum (1952–1967)

A majority of the collection from the Qumran caves was acquired by the Palestine Archaeological Museum. The Museum had the scrolls photographed by Najib Albina, a local Arab photographer trained by Lewis Larsson of the American Colony in Jerusalem, [461] Between 1952 and 1967, Albina documented the five-stage process of the sorting and assembly of the scrolls, done by the curator and staff of the Palestine Archaeological Museum, using infrared photography. Using a process known today as broadband fluorescence infrared photography, or NIR photography, Najib and the team at the Museum produced over 1,750 photographic plates of the scrolls and fragments. [20] : 68 [462] [463] [464] The photographs were taken with the scrolls laid out on animal skin, using large format film, which caused the text to stand out, making the plates especially useful for assembling fragments. [20] : 68 These are the earliest photographs of the museum's collection, which was the most complete in the world at the time, and they recorded the fragments and scrolls before their further decay in storage, so they are often considered the best recorded copies of the scrolls. [465]

Israel Antiquities Authority and NASA digital infrared imaging (1993–2012)

Beginning in 1993, the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration used digital infrared imaging technology to produce photographs of Dead Sea Scrolls fragments. [466] In partnership with the Ancient Biblical Manuscript Center and West Semitic Research, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully worked to expand on the use of infrared photography previously used to evaluate ancient manuscripts by expanding the range of spectra at which images are photographed. [467] NASA used this multi-spectral imaging technique, adapted from its remote sensing and planetary probes, in order to reveal previously illegible text on fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls. [467] The process uses a liquid crystal tunable filter in order to photograph the scrolls at specific wavelengths of light and, as a result, image distortion is significantly diminished. [466] This method was used with select fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls to reveal text and details that cameras that take photographs using a larger light spectrum could not reveal. [466] The camera and digital imaging assembly was developed specifically for the purpose of photographing illegible ancient texts. [468]

On 18 December 2012 [469] the first output of this project was launched together with Google on the dedicated site Deadseascrolls.org.il. [470] The site contains both digitizations of old images taken in the 1950s and about 1000 new images taken with the new NASA technology. [471]

Israel Antiquities Authority and DNA scroll assembly (2006–2020)

Scientists with the Israeli Antiquities Authority have used DNA from the parchment on which the Dead Sea Scrolls fragments were written, in concert with infrared digital photography, to assist in the reassembly of the scrolls. For scrolls written on parchment made from animal hide and papyrus, scientists with the museum are using DNA code to associate fragments with different scrolls and to help scholars determine which scrolls may hold greater significance based on the type of material that was used. [448] In a paper published in 2020 in the journal Cell, researchers from Tel Aviv University have shown that ancient DNA extracted from the ancient scrolls can be used to sort different scroll fragments not only based on the animal species but also based on variations in the nuclear genome of individual fragments. This effort enabled the researchers to match different fragments to each other based on their genetics and separate fragments which were falsely connected in the past. [472] [473]

Israel Museum of Jerusalem and Google digitization project (2011–2016)

In partnership with Google, the Museum of Jerusalem is working to photograph the Dead Sea Scrolls and make them available to the public digitally, although not placing the images in the public domain. [474] The lead photographer of the project, Ardon Bar-Hama, and his team are utilizing the Alpa 12 MAX camera accompanied with a Leaf Aptus-II back in order to produce ultra-high resolution digital images of the scrolls and fragments. [475] With photos taken at 1,200 megapixels, the results are digital images that can be used to distinguish details that are invisible to the naked eye. In order to minimize damage to the scrolls and fragments, photographers are using a 1/4000th of a second exposure time and UV-protected flash tubes. [474] The digital photography project was estimated in 2011 to cost approximately 3.5 million U.S. dollars. [475]

After most of the scrolls and fragments were moved to the Palestine Archaeological Museum in 1953, scholars began to assemble them and log them for translation and study in a room that became known as the "Scrollery". [476]

The text of the Dead Sea Scrolls is written in four different languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Nabataean.

Language Script Percentage of Documents Centuries of Known Use
Hebrew Assyrian block script [477] Estimated 76.0–79.0% 3rd century BCE to present
Hebrew Cryptic scripts "A" "B" and "C" [478] [479] [480] Estimated 0.9–1.0% [481] Unknown
Biblical Hebrew Paleo-Hebrew script [482] Estimated 1.0–1.5% [480] 10th century BCE to the 2nd century CE
Biblical Hebrew Paleo-Hebrew scribal script [482]
Aramaic Aramaic square script Estimated 16.0–17.0% [483] 8th century BCE to present
Greek Greek uncial script [482] Estimated 3.0% [480] 3rd century BCE to 8th century CE
Nabataean Nabataean script [484] Estimated 0.2% [484] 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE

Physical publication and controversy

Some of the fragments and scrolls were published early. Most of the longer, more complete scrolls were published soon after their discovery. All the writings in Cave 1 appeared in print between 1950 and 1956 those from eight other caves were released in 1963 and 1965 saw the publication of the Psalms Scroll from Cave 11. Their translations into English soon followed.

Controversy

Publication of the scrolls has taken many decades, and delays have been a source of academic controversy. The scrolls were controlled by a small group of scholars headed by John Strugnell, while a majority of scholars had access neither to the scrolls nor even to photographs of the text. Scholars such as Norman Golb, publishers and writers such as Hershel Shanks, and many others argued for decades for publishing the texts, so that they become available to researchers. This controversy only ended in 1991, when the Biblical Archaeology Society was able to publish the "Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls", after an intervention of the Israeli government and the Israeli Antiquities Authority (IAA). [485] In 1991 Emanuel Tov was appointed as the chairman of the Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation, and publication of the scrolls followed in the same year.

Physical description

The majority of the scrolls consist of tiny, brittle fragments, which were published at a pace considered by many to be excessively slow. During early assembly and translation work by scholars through the Rockefeller Museum from the 1950s through the 1960s, access to the unpublished documents was limited to the editorial committee. [ citation needed ]

Discoveries in the Judaean Desert (1955–2009)

The content of the scrolls was published in a 40 volume series by Oxford University Press published between 1955 and 2009 known as Discoveries in the Judaean Desert. [486] In 1952 the Jordanian Department of Antiquities assembled a team of scholars to begin examining, assembling, and translating the scrolls with the intent of publishing them. [487] The initial publication, assembled by Dominique Barthélemy and Józef Milik, was published as Qumran Cave 1 in 1955. [486] After a series of other publications in the late 1980s and early 1990s and with the appointment of the respected Dutch–Israeli textual scholar Emanuel Tov as Editor-in-Chief of the Dead Sea Scrolls Publication Project in 1990 publication of the scrolls accelerated. Tov's team had published five volumes covering the Cave 4 documents by 1995. Between 1990 and 2009, Tov helped the team produce 32 volumes. The final volume, Volume XL, was published in 2009.

A Preliminary Edition of the Unpublished Dead Sea Scrolls (1991)

In 1991, researchers at Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio, Ben Zion Wacholder and Martin Abegg, announced the creation of a computer program that used previously published scrolls to reconstruct the unpublished texts. [488] Officials at the Huntington Library in San Marino, California, led by Head Librarian William Andrew Moffett, announced that they would allow researchers unrestricted access to the library's complete set of photographs of the scrolls. In the fall of that year, Wacholder published 17 documents that had been reconstructed in 1988 from a concordance and had come into the hands of scholars outside of the International Team in the same month, there occurred the discovery and publication of a complete set of facsimiles of the Cave 4 materials at the Huntington Library. Thereafter, the officials of the Israel Antiquities Authority agreed to lift their long-standing restrictions on the use of the scrolls. [489]

A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls (1991)

After further delays, attorney William John Cox undertook representation of an "undisclosed client", who had provided a complete set of the unpublished photographs, and contracted for their publication. Professors Robert Eisenman and James Robinson indexed the photographs and wrote an introduction to A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which was published by the Biblical Archaeology Society in 1991. [490] Following the publication of the Facsimile Edition, Professor Elisha Qimron sued Hershel Shanks, Eisenman, Robinson and the Biblical Archaeology Society for copyright infringement for publishing, without authorization or attribution, his decipherment of one of the scrolls, MMT. The District Court of Jerusalem found in favor of Qimron in September 1993. [491] The Court issued a restraining order, which prohibited the publication of the deciphered text, and ordered defendants to pay Qimron NIS 100,000 for infringing his copyright and the right of attribution. Defendants appealed the Supreme Court of Israel, which approved the District Court's decision, in August 2000. The Supreme Court further ordered that the defendants hand over to Qimron all the infringing copies. [492] The decision met Israeli and international criticism from copyright law scholars. [493] [494] [495] [496] [497]

The Facsimile Edition by Facsimile Editions Ltd, London, England (2007–2008)

In November 2007 the Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation commissioned the London publisher, Facsimile Editions Limited, to produce a facsimile edition of The Great Isaiah Scroll (1QIs a ), The Order of the Community (1QS), and The Pesher to Habakkuk (1QpHab). [498] [499] The facsimile was produced from 1948 photographs, and so more faithfully represents the condition of the Isaiah scroll at the time of its discovery than does the current condition of the real Isaiah scroll. [498]

Of the first three facsimile sets, one was exhibited at the Early Christianity and the Dead Sea Scrolls exhibition in Seoul, South Korea, and a second set was purchased by the British Library in London. A further 46 sets including facsimiles of three fragments from Cave 4 (now in the collection of the National Archaeological Museum in Amman, Jordan) Testimonia (4Q175), Pesher Isaiah b (4Q162) and Qohelet (4Q109) were announced in May 2009. The edition is strictly limited to 49 numbered sets of these reproductions on either specially prepared parchment paper or real parchment. The complete facsimile set (three scrolls including the Isaiah scroll and the three Jordanian fragments) can be purchased for $60,000. [498]

The facsimiles have since been exhibited in Qumrân. Le secret des manuscrits de la mer Morte at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France (2010) [500] and Verbum Domini at the Vatican, Rome, Italy (2012). [501]

Digital publication

Olive Tree Bible Software (2000–2011)

The text of nearly all of the non-biblical scrolls has been recorded and tagged for morphology by Dr. Martin Abegg, Jr., the Ben Zion Wacholder Professor of Dead Sea Scroll Studies at Trinity Western University located in Langley, British Columbia, Canada. [502] It is available on handheld devices through Olive Tree Bible Software - BibleReader, on Macs and Windows via emulator through Accordance with a comprehensive set of cross references, and on Windows through Logos Bible Software and BibleWorks.

The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader (2005)

The text of almost all of the non-Biblical texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls was released on CD-ROM by publisher E.J. Brill in 2005. [503] The 2400 page, 6 volume series, was assembled by an editorial team led by Donald W. Parry and Emanuel Tov. [504] Unlike the text translations in the physical publication, Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, the texts are sorted by genres that include religious law, parabiblical texts, calendrical and sapiental texts, and poetic and liturgical works. [503]

Israel Antiquities Authority and Google digitization project (2010–2016)

High-resolution images, including infrared photographs, of some of the Dead Sea scrolls are now available online on two dedicated websites.

On 19 October 2010, it was announced [505] that Israeli Antiquities Authority (IAA) would scan the documents using multi-spectral imaging technology developed by NASA to produce high-resolution images of the texts, and then, through a partnership with Google, make them available online free of charge, [506] on a searchable database and complemented by translation and other scholarly tools. The project is scheduled for completion within five years.

On 25 September 2011 the Israel Museum Digital Dead Sea Scrolls site went online. [507] [508] It gives users access to searchable, high-resolution images of the scrolls, as well as short explanatory videos and background information on the texts and their history. As of May 2012, five complete scrolls from the Israel Museum have been digitized for the project and are now accessible online: the Great Isaiah Scroll, the Community Rule Scroll, the Commentary on Habakkuk Scroll, the Temple Scroll, and the War Scroll.

Before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest Hebrew-language manuscripts of the Bible were Masoretic texts dating to the 10th century CE, such as the Aleppo Codex. [509] Today, the oldest known extant manuscripts of the Masoretic Text date from approximately the 9th century. The biblical manuscripts found among the Dead Sea Scrolls push that date back a full thousand years, to the 2nd century BCE. [510] This was a significant discovery for Old Testament scholars who anticipated that the Dead Sea Scrolls would either affirm or repudiate the reliability of textual transmission from the original texts to the oldest Masoretic texts at hand. The discovery demonstrated the unusual accuracy of transmission over a thousand-year period, rendering it reasonable to believe that current Old Testament texts are reliable copies of the original works.

According to The Dead Sea Scrolls by Hebrew scholar Millar Burrows,

Of the 166 words in Isaiah 53, there are only seventeen letters in question. Ten of these letters are simply a matter of spelling, which does not affect the sense. Four more letters are minor stylistic changes, such as conjunctions. The remaining three letters comprise the word "light," which is added in verse 11, and does not affect the meaning greatly. [511]

It is important to note that differences were found among fragments of texts. According to The Oxford Companion to Archaeology:

While some of the Qumran biblical manuscripts are nearly identical to the Masoretic, or traditional, Hebrew text of the Old Testament, some manuscripts of the books of Exodus and Samuel found in Cave Four exhibit dramatic differences in both language and content. In their astonishing range of textual variants, the Qumran biblical discoveries have prompted scholars to reconsider the once-accepted theories of the development of the modern biblical text from only three manuscript families: of the Masoretic text, of the Hebrew original of the Septuagint, and of the Samaritan Pentateuch. It is now becoming increasingly clear that the Old Testament scripture was extremely fluid until its canonization around A.D. 100. [512]

Biblical books found

There are 225 Biblical texts included in the Dead Sea Scroll documents, or around 22% of the total, and with deuterocanonical books the number increases to 235. [513] [514] The Dead Sea Scrolls contain parts of all but one of the books of the Tanakh of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament protocanon. They also include four of the deuterocanonical books included in Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles: Tobit, Sirach, Baruch 6 (also known as the Letter or Epistle of Jeremiah), and Psalm 151. [513] The Book of Esther has not yet been found and scholars believe Esther is missing because, as a Jew, her marriage to a Persian king may have been looked down upon by the inhabitants of Qumran, [515] or because the book has the Purim festival which is not included in the Qumran calendar. [20] : 180 Listed below are the most represented books, along with the deuterocanonicals, of the Bible found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, including the number of translatable Dead Sea texts that represent a copy of scripture from each Biblical book: [516] [517]

Book Number found
Psalms 39
Deuteronomy 33
1 Enoch 25
Genesis 24
Isaiah 22
Jubilees 21
Exodus 18
Leviticus 17
Numbers 11
Minor Prophets 10 [note 1]
Daniel 8
Jeremiah 6
Ezekiel 6
Job 6
Tobit 5 [note 2]
Kings 4
Samuel 4
Judges 4 [520]
Song of Songs (Canticles) 4
Ruth 4
Lamentations 4
Sirach 3
Ecclesiastes 2
Joshua 2

Non-biblical books

The majority of the texts found among the Dead Sea Scrolls are non-biblical in nature and were thought to be insignificant for understanding the composition or canonization of the Biblical books, but a different consensus has emerged which sees many of these works as being collected by the Essene community instead of being composed by them. [521] Scholars now recognize that some of these works were composed earlier than the Essene period, when some of the Biblical books were still being written or redacted into their final form. [521]

Small portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls collections have been put on temporary display in exhibitions at museums and public venues around the world. The majority of these exhibitions took place in 1965 in the United States and the United Kingdom and from 1993 to 2011 in locations around the world. Many of the exhibitions were co-sponsored by either the Jordanian government (pre-1967) or the Israeli government (post-1967). Exhibitions were discontinued after 1965 due to the Six-Day War conflicts and have slowed down in post-2011 as the Israeli Antiquities Authority works to digitize the scrolls and place them in permanent cold storage.

The majority of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection was moved to Jerusalem's Shrine of the Book (a part of the Israel Museum) after the building's completion in April 1965. [522] The museum falls under the auspices of the Israel Antiquities Authority, an official agency of the Israeli government. The permanent Dead Sea Scrolls exhibition at the museum features a reproduction of the Great Isaiah Scroll, surrounded by reproductions of other famous fragments that include Community Rule, the War Scroll, and the Thanksgiving Psalms Scroll. [523] [524]

Some of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection held by the Jordanian government prior to 1967 was stored in Amman rather than at the Palestine Archaeological Museum in East Jerusalem. As a consequence, that part of the collection remained in Jordanian hands under their Department of Antiquities. In 2013 parts of this collection have been put on display at The Jordan Museum in Amman, to which they were moved from the Jordan Archaeological Museum. [525] Among the display items are artifacts from the Qumran site and the Copper Scroll. [526]

Past ownership

Arrangements with the Bedouin left the scrolls in the hands of a third party until a profitable sale of them could be negotiated. That third party, George Isha'ya, was a member of the Syriac Orthodox Church, who soon contacted St Mark's Monastery in the hope of getting an appraisal of the nature of the texts. News of the find then reached Metropolitan Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, better known as Mar Samuel. After examining the scrolls and suspecting their antiquity, Mar Samuel expressed an interest in purchasing them. Four scrolls found their way into his hands: the now famous Isaiah Scroll (1QIsa a ), the Community Rule, the Habakkuk Pesher (a commentary on the book of Habakkuk), and the Genesis Apocryphon. More scrolls soon surfaced in the antiquities market, and Professor Eleazer Sukenik and Professor Benjamin Mazar, archaeologists at Hebrew University, soon found themselves in possession of three, The War Scroll, Thanksgiving Hymns, and another, more fragmented, Isaiah scroll (1QIsa b ).

Four of the Dead Sea Scrolls eventually went up for sale in an advertisement on 1 June 1954, The Wall Street Journal. [527] On 1 July 1954, the scrolls, after delicate negotiations and accompanied by three people including the Metropolitan, arrived at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York. They were purchased by Professor Mazar and the son of Professor Sukenik, Yigael Yadin, for $250,000 (approximately $2,400,000 in 2020 dollars [528] ), and brought to Jerusalem. [529] Since 2002, forgeries of alleged Dead Sea Scrolls have appeared on black markets. [530]

Current ownership

Israel claims ownership of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection currently housed in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum. This ownership is contested by both Jordan and by the Palestinian Authority. [531]

A list of known ownership of Dead Sea Scroll fragments:

Claimed Owner Year Acquired Number of Fragments/Scrolls Owned
Azusa Pacific University [532] 2009 5
Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago [533] 1956 1
Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary [534] 2009 2010 2012 8
Rockefeller Museum – Government of Israel [535] [536] 1967 > 15,000
The Schøyen Collection owned by Martin Schøyen [537] 1980 1994 1995 115 [538]
The Jordan Museum – Government of Jordan [525] 1947–1956 > 25
Syrian Orthodox Church's eastern U.S. archdiocese [539] 1
Ashland Theological Seminary [539] 1
Lanier Theological Library [539] 1
Pasadena Private Collection [539] 1

  • In 2020 Museum of the Bible (also known as Green Collection – Green Family) reported that all 16 of the museum's Dead Sea Scroll fragments acquired between 2009 and 2014 [538][540] are modern forgeries. [541][542]

Ownership disputes

The official ownership of the Dead Sea Scrolls is disputed among the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the State of Israel, and the Palestinian Authority. The debate over the Dead Sea Scrolls stems from a more general Israeli–Palestinian conflict over land and state recognition.

A planned exhibition in Germany was cancelled, as the German government could not guarantee a return of the scrolls to Israel [1]

Copyright disputes

There are three types of documents relating to the Dead Sea Scrolls in which copyright status can be considered ambiguous the documents themselves, images taken of the documents, and reproductions of the documents. This ambiguity arises from differences in copyright law across different countries and the variable interpretation of such law.

In 1992 a copyright case Qimron v. Shanks was brought before the Israeli District court by scholar Elisha Qimron against Hershel Shanks of the Biblical Archaeology Society for violations of United States copyright law regarding his publishing of reconstructions of Dead Sea Scroll texts done by Qimron in A Facsimile Edition of the Dead Sea Scrolls which were included without his permission. Qimron's suit against the Biblical Archaeology Society was done on the grounds that the research they had published was his intellectual property as he had reconstructed about 40% of the published text. In 1993, the district court Judge Dalia Dorner ruled for the plaintiff, Elisha Qimron, in context of both United States and Israeli copyright law and granted the highest compensation allowed by law for aggravation in compensation against Hershel Shanks and others. [551] In an appeal in 2000 in front of Judge Aharon Barak, the verdict was upheld in Israeli Supreme Court in Qimron's favor. [552] The court case established the two main principles from which facsimiles are examined under copyright law of the United States and Israel: authorship and originality.


18.14: Movie Scripts 15-16

NEXT AUDITIONS © All rights reserved.

*Next Star Productions does not provide any auditions for employment or career management or agent services. Next Star Productions is not a Talent Agency, we are a Talent Showcase offering selected individuals to meet and showcase in front of top, leading SAG Franchised Agencies and Managers. Only a talent agency, licensed pursuant to section 1700.5 of the labor code, may engage in the occupation of procuring, offering, promising, or attempting to produce employment or engagements for an individual. Neither "Johnson Productions", "Next Star Productions” or "The Online Star" claim to or imply to be directly affiliated with the manufacturer(s), brand(s), company(s) or retailer(s) of those shown or listed on this website, to include photos, videos or their products and in no way claim to represent or own their trademarks, logos, marketing materials, or products. None of the manufacturer(s), brand(s), company(s) or retailer(s) shown or listed on this website endorse, or promote "Johnson Productions", “NEXT", "Next Star Productions” or "The Online Star."


mail.com was launched in 1995 with the goal of providing unparalleled email functionality to our customers. Besides our email service we also offer news content, and on our website you will find the latest entertainment news, sport news, tech news and business news.

Need help? Please feel free to visit our mail.com support pages anytime.

Register your new email account here – It’s free!

  • More
    • Games
    • Domains
    • Mail Collector
    • 30 MB Attachments
    • mail.com 25th anniversary
    • Mobile apps
    • MailCheck
    • Recover your password
    • Help Center
    • Contact Premium Support
    • mail.com blog
    • US
    • International

    Copyright © 2021 1&1 Mail & Media Inc. All rights reserved.
    Copyright 2021 Associated Press. All rights reserved.
    This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.


    Play Scripts for Middle School and High School

    Royalty-free plays for middle school and high school students. We have one-act plays, full-length plays, and scenes. Comedies and dramas for school performances. Read our guidelines for performing our plays, then browse the collection below!

    50 Skits for Kids
    50+ royalty-free scripts for kids and teens!

    20 Practice Scenes
    Twenty, one-page scenes that can be acted out immediately!

    20 More Practice Scenes for Pairs
    Twenty more one-page scenes for pairs or three actors!

    How to Put on a Show
    Have you been asked to put on a play at your school or with your group, and find it a daunting task? Or have you been doing plays for years and are looking for an easier or less expensive alternative?

    24 Hour Play Project
    How to create and perform a play with your students in one day! Great spring performance idea or fundraiser.

    Plays with Flexible Casting

    (These plays contain characters which can be played by either male or female actors.)

    The Three Musketeers and the Very Pretty Diamond
    27 characters. Flexible casting. Approximately 40 minutes running time. An English French farce with sword-fighting and attitude!

    Robin Hood and the Unnecessary Rescue
    27+ characters. Approximately 35 minutes running time. Comedic version of Robin Hood (sequel to Robin Hood and the Wedding of Doom).

    Jackie & the Beans Talk
    27 characters. 3F 3M 21 Either Flexible casting 18 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A modernist comedy (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Catch the Waves
    18-26 characters. Flexible Cast 46 pages in length. Approximately 45-50 minutes running time. A space comedy for teens written by Patti Veconi. (10 credits)

    THE POE PLAYS
    23 characters. 15F, 8M Flexible casting 24 pages long. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A detention horror comedy for teens written by Quinn Baldwin.

    The Cat Noir
    22 characters. 5F 7M 10 Either Flexible casting 15 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A canine Cabaret play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    A Midsummer Camp’s Dream
    19 characters. 10M, 9F, Flexible cast 47 pages in length. Approximately 45-50 minutes running time. A modern Shakespeare comedy for teens written by Terence Patrick Hughes. (10 credits)

    Doc Faustus
    19 characters. Approximately one-hour running time. Comedic modern adaptation of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe.

    The Magic Lunch Box
    18 characters. Flexible casting. 14 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A magical Australian tale.

    Boss Boudicca and her Fearsome Friends
    18 characters. Flexible casting. Approximately 25 minutes running time. Comedic Roman history play about an ancient British Queen who led an uprising against invading Roman forces.

    Three Tragedies
    17 characters. Flexible cast 43 pages in length. Approximately 45-60 minutes running time. A collection of short plays about Shakespeare’s minor characters written by Martin Keady. (10 credits)

    Romayo and Julie
    17 characters. 11F, 6M, Flexible cast 23 pages long. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A comedy for teens written by Quinn Baldwin.

    The Great Chicago Fire/The Trial of Bessie
    16 characters. 4F, 5M, 7Either Flexible casting 10 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A cowtastrophe written by Holly Winn.

    The Prophecy of Calysae
    15+ characters Flexible cast 34 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A Greek tragedy best suited for older students written by Sandy Barker.

    Poulter Guise
    15+ characters. 3-6M, 12-14F Flexible cast 28 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A supernatural comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    The Dragon & the Pearl
    15 characters. 3F 3M 9 Either Flexible casting 16 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A Chinese Theatre play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    A Merry Interlude at Camelot
    15 characters. 4F 3M 8 Either Flexible casting 14 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Medieval comedy (with classroom materials) adapted by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Penny from Heaven
    14+ characters. 4F 5M 5+ Either Flexible casting 10 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A vaudeville comedy for teens (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman.

    Robin Hood and the Wedding of Doom
    14+ characters. Flexible casting. Approximately 30 minutes long. Comedy Robin Hood melodrama script.

    The Boy In the Picture
    14 characters. 5F 4M 5 Either Flexible casting. 34 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A fantasy about choices written by Sashi Mendis.

    The Plucky Wives of Henry VIII
    14 characters. Approximately 10 minutes running time. Comedic script featuring the many wives of Henry VIII.

    Peggy Mae Leon Script
    14 characters. 30 minutes. Ages 12 and up. One-act modern day parody of Pygmalion.

    The News Done Spread
    13+ characters Flexible cast.12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A comedy for teens about gossip written by Jonathan Joy.

    What Should You Do?
    13 characters. 10 minutes running time. Play warning about the dangers of drug and alcohol use among teenagers.

    Middle School Brain
    13 characters, flexible casting. Approximately 10 minutes running time. One teen character is split into many aspects of her personality in this entertaining short play by Debra A. Cole.

    The Imaginary Friends Detective Agency
    12+ characters. 9F, 7M Flexible casting 45 pages in length. Approximately 45 minutes running time. A lighthearted drama about loss written by Trevor Suthers. (5 credits)

    The Constitution Puppet Show
    12 characters. 12 minutes running time. Short play featuring the founding fathers of the United States.

    Unintent
    11+ characters. 4M, 3F, 4 Either Flexible casting 15 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A drama about guilt for teens and adults written by Ryan Morris.

    A Middle School Science Project Time Machine
    11 characters. Approximately ten minutes running time. Middle school students travel to a bleak future during the science fair.

    The Vixen
    11 characters. 4F 5M 2 Either Flexible casting 17 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Renaissance comedy (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Cards On The Table
    11 characters. Flexible casting. 12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An Agatha Christie murder mystery written by Lexi Sekuless.

    Lady Scottish Play
    10 characters. 3F 2M 5 Either Flexible casting 14 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A melodrama for teens (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Mum’s the Word
    10 characters. 1F 3M 6 Either Flexible casting 13 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An English folk comedy (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    North Paws
    10 characters. 1F 3M 6 Either Flexible casting 12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An epic style play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Incognito
    10 characters, 3M, 2F, 3 any gender. Approximately 7 minutes running time. Funny short play about Superman wanting a day off!

    The Burglar Alarm
    4-10 characters, flexible casting. Approximately ten-minutes running time. Comedy based on a Mark Twain story.

    Mad Tea Party
    9 characters. 15 minutes running time. Adaptation of the mad hatter’s tea party in Alice in Wonderland.

    School Work
    9 characters. 5M, 4F Flexible cast 19 pages in length. Approximately 20-25 minutes running time. An extraterrestrial comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    Couth
    9 characters. 3F 3M 3 Either Flexible casting 17 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Spanish Golden Age comedy (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Animal Farm
    8+ characters 3M, 5+Either Flexible casting 8 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A comedic adaptation of George Orwell’s story by written by Andy Pavey.

    Pantalone’s New Pantalones
    8 characters. 3F 3M 2 Either Flexible casting 13 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A Commedia dell’arte play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Killing Death
    7+ characters. 5M, 2+ Either Flexible casting 10 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A dark comedy about Death for teens written by Jack Helbig. (Contains some strong language.)

    A River in Savannah
    7 characters 10 pages long. Approximately ten minutes running time. A play that addresses racial/cultural issues from American history.

    All is Fair in Show Business
    6 characters 4F, 2 Either 17 pages in length. Approximately 10-20 minutes running time. A comedy for teens written by Barry M. Putt, Jr.

    Project Humans
    5 characters, any gender. Approximately 5 minutes running time. Alien abduction comedy!

    Thou Roguish, Boil-Brained, Coxcomb
    4+ characters 2M, 2F 2+ Either Flexible casting 12 pages in length Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A short comedy for teens and adults written by Kate Schwartz. (* Contains strong language.)

    Almost Fairy Time
    4 characters. Flexible cast. 8 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A Shakespearean fairy play for children and teens written by Diana Burbano.

    LGBT Sketch
    4 characters. Flexible casting. 2 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. Four monologues about LGBT acceptance written by Corrina Bryant.

    Niseag
    3 characters. 2M, 1F Flexible casting 15 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Loch Ness comedy for teens written by Donald W. Falconer. Some strong language.

    Comedic Shakespeare Duologues
    Scenes for 2 actors. 8 comedic duologues that help students learn the plots of various Shakespeare plays.

    Full-Length Plays

    Spoon River Anthology
    Over 200 characters play townspeople who speak from the grave in this classic piece by Edgar Lee Masters. Here is the entire play set up on the pages so that individual monologues are easy to print out and cut apart into individual monologues.

    50 Skits for Kids
    50+ royalty-free scripts for kids and teens!

    Catch the Waves
    18-26 characters. Flexible Cast 46 pages in length. Approximately 45-50 minutes running time. A space comedy for teens written by Patti Veconi. (10 credits)

    Surviving Braces
    24 characters. 85 pages in length. Approximately 90 minutes running time. A hilarious and heartfelt play for teens written by Richard Broadhurst. (10 credits)

    The Tempest
    19 characters. 11M, 6F, 2Either 53 pages in length. Approximately 45-60 minutes running time. A comic Shakespeare adaptation written by Terence Patrick Hughes. (10 credits)

    A Midsummer Camp’s Dream
    19 characters. 10M, 9F, Flexible cast 47 pages in length. Approximately 45-50 minutes running time. A modern Shakespeare comedy for teens written by Terence Patrick Hughes. (10 credits)

    Three Tragedies
    17 characters. Flexible cast 43 pages in length. Approximately 45-60 minutes running time. A collection of short plays about Shakespeare’s minor characters written by Martin Keady. (10 credits)

    Ahead of the Game
    16 characters. 65 pages long. Approximately 60 minutes running time. A play that encourages kindness, positivity, and respect written by Catherine Davis. (10 credits)

    The Prophecy of Calysae
    15+ characters Flexible cast 34 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A Greek tragedy best suited for older students written by Sandy Barker.

    Grit v. Gossip
    14 characters. 10F, 4M 76 pages in length. Approximately 90 minutes running time. A play for teens about integrity written by Denis Meadows. (*Contains adult language which may be removed or substituted if necessary.) (10 credits)

    Teenagers In Love
    14 characters. 8M, 6F 71 pages in length. Approximately 90 minutes running time. A reunion of high school lovers written by Sean O’Connor. *Contains strong language. (10 credits)

    The Imaginary Friends Detective Agency
    12+ characters. 9F, 7M Flexible casting 45 pages in length. Approximately 45 minutes running time. A lighthearted drama about loss written by Trevor Suthers. (5 credits)

    The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg
    12 characters. 4 F, 8 M. Approximately 50 minutes running time. Full-length play based on a Mark Twain story. (5 credits)

    Barnyard
    9 characters. 40 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A play for older teens written by Richard Broadhurst.(5 credits)

    Who Collects The Pain?
    8 Characters 7M, 1F 81 pages pages in length. Approximately 90 minutes running time. A drama about crossing racial, social and economic lines written by Sean O’Connor. (*Strong language) (10 credits)

    Miss Hollywood
    7-12 characters. 65 pages long. Approximately 90 minutes running time.A play that deals with first love, class conflict, and racism in the sixties. Ages 14 and up. (10 credits)

    New Truck For Paulie
    6 characters. 4 M, 2 F. 92 pages in length. Approximately 90 minutes running time. A powerful family drama set during the Vietnam War written by Sean O’Connor. (10 credits)

    World of Sinatras
    5 characters. 3M, 2F. 87 pages in length. Approximately 90 minutes running time. A dysfunctional family drama written by Sean O’Connor. *Contains strong language. (10 credits)

    Making the Grade
    2 characters. 2F 34 pages in length. Approximately 30-40 minutes running time. An engrossing drama about two sisters written by Pete Hartley. (5 credits)

    One Act Plays

    Four Square
    28 characters. 11F, 10M, 7 Either 35 pages long. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A drama for teens written by Quinn Baldwin.

    Jackie & the Beans Talk
    27 characters. 3F 3M 21 Either Flexible casting 18 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A modernist comedy (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Conversation Club
    23 characters. 13F, 6M, 4 Either 27 pages long. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A drama for teens about bullying written by Quinn Baldwin.(3 credits)

    THE POE PLAYS
    23 characters. 15F, 8M Flexible casting 24 pages long. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A detention horror comedy for teens written by Quinn Baldwin.

    The Cat Noir
    22 characters. 5F 7M 10 Either Flexible casting 15 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A canine Cabaret play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    The Weaver Girl & the Cowherd
    21 characters. 14 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An Asian puppetry play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    The Magic Lunch Box
    18 characters. Flexible casting. 14 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A magical Australian tale written by Lexi Sekuless.

    Romayo and Julie
    17 characters. 11F, 6M, Flexible cast 23 pages long. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A comedy for teens written by Quinn Baldwin.

    Split Decision
    16 characters. 9F, 5M, 2 Either 30 pages long. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A comedy for teens written by Quinn Baldwin.

    The Case of the Lost Lavakian Princess
    16 characters. 11F, 5M 28 pages in length. Approximately 25-30 minutes running time. A kidnapping mystery for teens written by Carolyn Nur Wistrand.

    The Great Chicago Fire/The Trial of Bessie
    16 characters. 4F, 5M, 7Either Flexible casting 10 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A cowtastrophe written by Holly Winn.

    Poulter Guise
    15+ characters. 3-6M, 12-14F Flexible cast 28 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A supernatural comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    The Lamentable Tragedy of Titus and Juliet
    15 characters 7M, 8F 36 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A comedy for teens written by Ryan Bultrowicz.

    The Dragon & the Pearl
    15 characters. 3F 3M 9 Either Flexible casting 16 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A Chinese Theatre play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    A Merry Interlude at Camelot
    15 characters. 4F 3M 8 Either Flexible casting 14 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Medieval comedy (with classroom materials) adapted by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    The Little Known Voyage of Christina Columbus
    15 characters. 7M, 8F 11 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A semi-historical comedy for children written by Terence Patrick Hughes.

    The Adventures of Christina and Viperina
    14+ characters 5M, 4F 5 Either 39 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A comedy for children and teens written by Carlos Perez.

    Penny from Heaven
    14+ characters. 4F 5M 5+ Either Flexible casting 10 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A vaudeville comedy for teens (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman.

    The Boy In the Picture
    14 characters. 5F 4M 5 Either Flexible casting. 34 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A fantasy about choices written by Sashi Mendis.

    Afternoon at the Improv
    14 characters. 8F, 6M 13 pages long. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    Afternoon at the Improv
    14 characters. 8F, 6M 13 pages long. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    The News Done Spread
    13+ characters Flexible cast.12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A comedy for teens about gossip written by Jonathan Joy.

    Middle School Brain
    13 characters, flexible casting. Approximately 10 minutes running time. One teen character is split into many aspects of her personality in this entertaining short play by Debra A. Cole.

    Princess Alexandria Isn’t Very Happy
    13 characters 4M, 6F, 3 Either 32 pages in length plus a 9 page study guide. Approximately 35 minutes running time. A a spoof on traditional fairy tales written by Sandy Barker. (3 credits)

    The Secret Life of Catarina Brown
    12+ characters 4M, 7F, 2+ Either 42 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A contemporary comedy for teens with study guide written by Sandy Barker.(3 credits)

    The New Boy
    12 characters 12M. 23 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A ghost story written by Andrew Beattie.

    Idols
    11+ characters. 6F, 5M, 2+ Either 13 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A one-act comedy for teens about obsession written by Donald Arneson.

    Unintent
    11+ characters. 4M, 3F, 4 Either Flexible casting 15 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A drama about guilt for teens and adults written by Ryan Morris.

    NC’s Big Night
    11 characters. 9F, 2M 20 pages in length. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    The Vixen
    11 characters. 4F 5M 2 Either Flexible casting 17 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Renaissance comedy (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Cards On The Table
    11 characters. Flexible casting. 12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An Agatha Christie murder mystery.

    Dream Train
    10+ characters 6F, 3M, 1+ Either 28 pages in length. Approximately 30-45 minutes running time. A drama for teens written by Starry Krueger.

    A Very Odd Harvest Play
    10 characters. 5F, 3M, 2 Either 22 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A mythological/intergalactic comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    Polly Peachum & the Pirates
    10 characters. 5F 5M 17 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A comic opera (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    By Jove
    10 characters. 4F 6M 15 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Roman comedy (with classroom materials) adapted by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    It’s All In Your Head
    10 characters 1M, 1F, 8 Either 14 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A comedy for teens written by Frannie Dove.

    Lady Scottish Play
    10 characters. 3F 2M 5 Either Flexible casting 14 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A melodrama for teens (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    The Honest Impostor
    10 characters. 5F 5M 14 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A comedy for teens (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Mum’s the Word
    10 characters. 1F 3M 6 Either Flexible casting 13 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An English folk comedy (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Trade Trade Secrets
    10 characters. 8F 2M 13 pages in length. Approximately 15 minutes running time. A comedic revue (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    North Paws
    10 characters. 1F 3M 6 Either Flexible casting 12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An epic style play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Incognito
    10 characters, 3M, 2F, 3 any gender. Approximately 7 minutes running time. Funny short play about Superman wanting a day off!

    The Seance: An Evening With Madam Ollo
    10 characters. 4M, 6F 11 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A supernatural mystery for teens and adults written by Aaron Sampson. *Contains violence.

    School Work
    9 characters. 5M, 4F Flexible cast 19 pages in length. Approximately 20-25 minutes running time. An extraterrestrial comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    Couth
    9 characters. 3F 3M 3 Either Flexible casting 17 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Spanish Golden Age comedy (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    Animal Farm
    8+ characters 3M, 5+Either Flexible casting 8 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A comedic adaptation of George Orwell’s story by written by Andy Pavey.

    Snowbound
    8-14 characters, 2 F, 6-12 M. Approximately 12-15 minutes running time. Dark comedy based on a Mark Twain tale.

    The Misadventures of Frog Girl
    8 characters 2F, 6 Either 20 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time.A comedy for children written by Carlos Perez.

    Pantalone’s New Pantalones
    8 characters. 3F 3M 2 Either Flexible casting 13 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A Commedia dell’arte play (with classroom materials) written by August Mergelman. (3 Credits)

    The Hollow
    8 characters. 3M, 5F. 13 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An adaptation of Agatha Christie’s murder mystery.

    Test Ride
    8 characters. 3F, 3M, 2 Either 13 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A sci-fi comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    Killing Death
    7+ characters. 5M, 2+ Either Flexible casting 10 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A dark comedy about Death for teens written by Jack Helbig. (Contains some strong language.)

    Social Media
    7 characters, flexible casting. Five different social media characters argue over who does the least harm. Approximately 10 minutes running time.

    Pool Party
    7 characters. 7F 27 pages in length. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A party planning dramedy for teens written by Patti Veconi.

    The New School Marm
    7 characters. 4F, 3M 20 pages long. Approximately 20 minutes running time. A comedy for teens about outsmarting greedy developers written by August Mergelman.

    The Curious Case of Benjamin Button
    7 characters 5M 2F 6 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A comedic adaptation about aging written by Andy Pavey.

    Go Back For Murder
    6-8 characters. 11 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. An Agatha Christie murder mystery.

    Truth or Dare
    6 female characters. Four teen girls having a sleepover play a prank that backfires! Approximately ten minutes running time.

    The Big Dance
    6 characters, all female. Approximately 10 minutes running time. Cute play by Debra A. Cole about a group of teenage girls who are attending their first school dance.

    KAOS-TV
    6 characters 3F, 2M, 1 Either 26 pages in length. Approximately 20-30 minutes running time. A one-act comedy for teens written by James Rayfield.

    The Contest
    6 characters, 3M, 3F. Approximately 10 minutes running time. Funny short play that teaches a lesson about being stubborn and fighting with your siblings or friends.

    Felix
    6 characters. 1F, 1M, 4 Either. 16 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A funny, warm comedy for teens and adults written by Corrina Bryant.

    Learn German with Ollendorff!
    6 characters, 3F, 3M. Approximately 12 minutes running time. Ages 12 and up. Short version of a full-length Mark Twain play.

    The Price of Gold
    5 characters-all male cast. Approximately 10 minutes running time. This amusing short play by Debra A. Cole is a cautionary tale about greed.

    Tony’s Chums
    5 characters. 1F, 4M. 15 pages in length. Approximately 10-20 minutes running time. A tale of adventure for children written by Graham Knapman.

    Project Humans
    5 characters, any gender. Approximately 5 minutes running time. Alien abduction comedy!

    The Liberty Well
    5 characters 3M 2F. 14 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A historical ghost story written by Anthony L. Mariani.

    Camp Soggy Lake
    5 characters. 2M, 3F 12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A nature comedy for teens written by Thomas J. Misuraca.

    He Who Speaks
    5 characters 1F, 1M, 3 Either 12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A drama for children and teens written by Starry Krueger.

    Defending Charlotte Goodlady
    5 characters. 4M, 1F 6 pages in length. Approximately 5 minutes running time. A suspenseful drama for teens and adults written by Aaron Sampson. *Contains adult themes and violence.

    Super Me
    5 characters, flexible casting. A bullied teen gets unexpected help from his/her superhero alter-ego. Approximately 10 minutes running time.

    Metamorphosis
    5 characters, all female. Approximately 10 minutes running time. Short play for teens about being yourself rather than trying to conform! Great play for students to get creative with costuming.

    The Spy Next Door
    5 characters, flexible casting. Short play about a group of students who think their teacher is a spy! Approximately ten minutes running time.

    Honestly
    5 characters, flexible casting. Approximately 10 minutes running time. Short, modern play by Debra A. Cole based on a West African folk tale.

    The Burglar Alarm
    4-10 characters, flexible casting. Approximately ten-minutes running time. Comedy based on a Mark Twain story.

    Inside
    4 male characters. Ages 14 and up. 36 pages in length. Approximately 40 minutes running time. (5 credits)

    Mama Threw Me So High
    4 characters 3F, 1M 17 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A drama for teens written by Starry Krueger.

    Angels and Pastrami
    4 characters. 2M, 1F, 1 Either 12 pages long. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A short drama about homelessness written by Bruce Karp.

    Looking for Juliet
    4 characters. 1M, 3F 11 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A short comedy for teens about a Shakespeare audition written by Teresa Fogel.

    Stinky Bird
    4 characters 3M 1F. 10 pages in length. Approximately 10-20 minutes running time. A comedy for young performers written by Seth Freeman.

    The Golden Goose
    4 characters. 8 pages long. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A drama for teens written by Scot Walker.

    Almost Fairy Time
    4 characters. Flexible cast. 8 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A Shakespearean fairy play for children and teens written by Diana Burbano.

    Tse Tse Valley
    4 characters 4M 8 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. Additional 7 page study guide included. A drama for teens and adults written by Tsungayi Hatitye.(3 credits)

    Oh My God, They’re here!
    4 characters. 2M, 2F. 7 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A comedy about a dysfunctional family written by Corrina Bryant.

    Lab Report
    4 characters. Flexible casting. 10 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A short play for teens about therapy written by Louise Scoville.

    The Circus Still Comes To Town
    3 characters. 1M, 2F 22 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A drama for teens about romance and family written by Tom Cavanaugh.

    Dying To Save Your Life
    3 characters. 1F, 2M. 19 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A dark thriller for teens and adults written by Corrina Bryant.

    Just Life
    3 characters. 2F, 1M. 19 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A sweet comedy about getting older written by Corrina Bryant.

    Detention is Detention is Detention
    3 characters. 1M, 2F 18 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A comedy about male/female relationships written by Suzanne Dottino. Strong language.

    Niseag
    3 characters. 2M, 1F Flexible casting 15 pages in length. Approximately 15-20 minutes running time. A Loch Ness comedy for teens written by Donald W. Falconer. Some strong language.

    Buck Fanshaw’s Funeral
    3 characters. 1F, 2M. Approximately 10 minutes running time. Comedic short play based on a Mark Twain tale. Very funny use of language!

    The Human Room
    3 characters. 2M, 1F 8 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. An existential drama for teens written by Corey Pajka.

    Bella Napoli
    2 characters. 1M, 1F 13 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A comedy set in 1930’s Italy written by Steve Gold.

    Confession
    2 (M) characters. 11 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A hilarious, one-act play for teens and adults written by Cameron Corcoran.(Contains strong language.)

    SWOP
    2 characters. 2F. 11 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A play for teens and adults about friendship and lack of fulfillment written by Corrina Bryant.

    The Gospel of Mom
    2 characters, both female. Approximately 7 minutes running time. Based on the philosophical writings of Mark Twain.

    Visiting
    2 characters. 1 M, 1 F. 9 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A short drama about teen parents and crime written by Alan Stolzer.

    Alzheimer’s Diary
    2 characters. 2M, 1F 8 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. An existential drama for teens written by Corey Pajka.

    Scenes

    20 Practice Scenes for Pairs
    Twenty, one-page scenes that can be acted out immediately!

    Roll of the Dice
    20 characters. 6 pages long. Approximately 7 minutes running time. A short comedy by playwright, Barbara Henderson.

    Dare to Remember
    19+ characters. 8 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A teenage ghost story written by award-winning playwright, Barbara Henderson.

    Here we Come
    18 characters. 6 pages long. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A short comedy by playwright, Barbara Henderson.

    Read Me
    15 characters. 8 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time.A mystical action – adventure story written by award-winning playwright, Barbara Henderson.

    A Trip to the Forest
    9+ characters. 3M, 3F, 3+ Either 4 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. A short, family play for kids and teens by Jasmine Rodgers’s Class.

    The Search for a Director
    8 parts, 9 pages. Short script for use in a directing class. Best suited for ages 10-13.

    THE MAYPOLE, or My Problem with Nathaniel Hawthorne
    6+ characters. Flexible cast. 4 pages in length. Approximately 5 minutes running time. A rapping comedy for teens written by Germaine Shames.

    Brighter Than Others
    5 characters. Ten minutes running time. Funny scene in which cave people hold a board meeting.

    Zero Hour
    4 characters. 6 minutes running time. Comedic scene in which a group of turkeys brace themselves against an unknown enemy.

    The Trial
    4 characters. 10 minutes running time. A woman on trial for being a witch pushes back against her accusers.

    A Night at the Human Garden
    4 characters. 7 minutes running time. Several misguided customers misinterpret the menu items at a Chinese food restaurant.

    Beauty Kweens
    4 characters. 3F, 1M. 9 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A competitive comedy for teens written by Diana Burbano.

    Concert
    4 characters. 4F. 9 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A dramedy for teens about religious tolerance written by Marj O’Neill-Butler.

    The Spook In My Tent
    4 characters. 4F 9 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A ghost story for teens written by Elizabeth Rapoza.

    The Quest
    4 characters. 4F. 8 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A comedy for teens and adults written by Corrina Bryant.

    Transmorpher
    4 characters. 4M 8 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A science fair comedy for teens by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    Plastic World
    4 characters. 2M, 2F. 6 pages in length. Approximately 5 minutes running time. An informational play about pollution written by Corrina Bryant.

    Get Over Your Selfie
    4 characters. 2F, 2M. 3 pages in length. Approximately 5 minutes running time. A short, selfie-absorbed comedy for children and teens written by Donna Latham

    LGBT Sketch
    4 characters. Flexible casting. 2 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. Four monologues about LGBT acceptance written by Corrina Bryant.

    Wrong Way, Dude
    3 characters, (2M 1F). 21 pages in length. Approximately 20 minutes running time. A one-act comedy for teens written by Robin Rice.

    Masks
    3 characters. 2M, 1F. 11 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A comedy for teens about social anxiety written by Scott Mullen.

    Self Defence or Avocado?
    3 characters. 2F, 1M. 9 pages in length. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A comedy about crime and safety written by Corrina Bryant. (*Contains adult language.)

    Waiting Room
    3 characters. 2M, 1F. 9 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A comedic, one-act play for older teens and adults written by Cameron Corcoran.

    Hungry, Hungry Hippo Burgers
    3 characters. 7 pages long. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A fast food comedy for teens and adults by playwright, Scot Walker.

    Saying Goodbye
    3 characters. 2F, 1M. 7 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A funny, warm comedy for teens and adults written by Corrina Bryant.

    You Oughta Be In Pictures
    3 characters. 2F,1M 7 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A science fiction comedy for kids by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    Kidnapped by Pirates
    3 characters. 3F 6 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A Renaissance comedy for teens or adults by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    The Music of Love
    3 characters 1M, 2F 6 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A romantic comedy for teens written by Robin Blasberg.

    Battle of What Bridge
    3 characters. 3M 5 pages in length. Approximately 3-5 minutes running time. A Renaissance comedy for teens or adults by playwright, Elizabeth Rapoza.

    The Unfortunate Teller
    2 characters. Ten minutes running time. Hilarious scene between a fake fortune teller and a customer.

    Balloon Ride
    3 characters. 7 pages long. Approximately 6 minutes running time. Comedy scene that takes place in a hot air balloon.

    The Present
    2 characters. Ten minutes running time. Comedic scene in which a gift is awkwardly given and received.

    The Field Trip
    2 characters. 3 minutes running time. Two-page scene about a couple of students who sneak away from the school field trip.

    Oscar
    2 (F) characters. Ten minutes running time. A teenage couple visits the family home of one of the girls after her mother has died.

    Bitter Cherries
    2 characters, (1M 1F). 12 pages in length. Approximately 10-15 minutes running time. A short drama for teens written by Robin Rice.

    The Condor Egg
    2 characters. Ten minutes running time. An imaginative teenager dreams of doing something unusual for the school art show.

    A Lively Outfit
    2 characters. Ten minutes running time. An eccentric shop owner recruits his assistant to help him with a strange experiment.

    Nevada Johnson And The Meaning Of Life
    2 characters. 1M, 1F. 10 pages long. Approximately 10 minutes running time. A comedy adventure for teens by Evan Baughfman.

    Out on a Limb
    2 characters. 7 pages long. Approximately 6 minutes running time. A pair of cats are stuck in a tree and they argue about how get down.

    Bequest
    2 characters. 1M, 1F 8 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A touching drama for children and teens written by Jon Bromfield.

    Puppy Love
    2 characters. 2F. 8 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A funny, warm comedy for teens and adults written by Corrina Bryant.

    An Imaginary Friend
    2 characters. 2M. 7 pages long. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A short play about an imaginary friendship by Martha Patterson.

    The Revenge of the Howling Ring-Tailed Spider Monkeys
    2 characters. Flexible cast. 7 pages long. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A comedy about a meltdown for teens and adults by playwright, Scot Walker.(Language)

    The Greatest Of Expectations
    2 characters. 1M, 1F 6 pages in length. Approximately 5-10 minutes running time. A futuristic tale for teens with Charles Dickens written by Steven Lancefield.

    Going Home
    2 characters. 1F, 1M. 5 pages in length. Approximately 5 minutes running time. A short play about the meaning of “home” written by Corrina Bryant. (*Contains adult language.)

    The Rules
    2 characters. 2F. 5 pages long. Approximately 5 minutes running time. A short play about creating real friendship by Martha Patterson.

    Teen Reading Program
    2 characters. 2F 3 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. An adventure in reading written by Judith Pratt.

    The Abduction of Don Vito
    2 characters. 2M 3 pages in length. Approximately 2-5 minutes running time. A crime drama for teens and adults written by Aaron Sampson.

    The Clubhouse
    2 characters. 2M 3 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. A scene for boys about keeping a promise written by David-Matthew Barnes.

    Leaving the Cave
    2M characters. 3 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. A classical drama for teens and adults written by Cameron Corcoran.

    My Lips Are Sealed
    2 characters. 2F 3 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. A scene for teens about gossiping written by David-Matthew Barnes.

    One Stupid Moment
    2 characters. 2F 3 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. A scene for teens about a humiliating encounter written by David-Matthew Barnes.

    Thirteen
    2 characters. 2F 3 pages in length. Approximately 1-5 minutes running time. A scene for young girls about studying written by David-Matthew Barnes.

    Go Back to Menu…


    Member of…


    Contents

    The film begins with Udai (Prateik Babbar) leaving his village for the United States, telling his little brother Ramakant (Suraj Sharma) to always remember what he tells him. While his mother is crying due to Udai's departure, he tells him to always write to the family when he gets to "Umrika" ("America" as spoken with an accent).

    Following the death of his father, Ramakant realises that the letters his family has been receiving from Udai have been forged by his father and uncle, and learns that Udai vanished when he reached his port city, Mumbai. He embarks upon a journey to locate his brother.

    The soundtrack of Umrika consists of 17 tracks composed by Dustin O'Halloran.

    Shortly after its premiere, the film was sold by sales agent Beta Cinema to France, Germany, Austria, Australia, South Korea and numerous other territories, making it one of the most widely distributed Indian independent films of recent times that was incidentally, never released in India. [4] The film had its European premiere at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival, 2015 . [5]

    Critical reception Edit

    On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes Umrika has an approval score of 77% based on 13 reviews with an average rating of 6.4 out of 10. [6] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called Umrika a "warmly intelligent film" [7] and included it in his 25 Films of note at Sundance 2015. [8] Dennis Harvey of Variety praised the film, giving kudos to "Nair’s soundly constructed script and deft handling of a very good cast." [9] Boyd van Hoeij of The Hollywood Reporter stated Nair has managed to incorporate several big and abstract topics—including what ties us to our families and place of birth and the extent to which these things are important—into a story in which they become highly personal for the characters. [10] Nikola Grozdanovic of IndieWire gave the film a rating of C- saying that, '"Umrika" is ultimately a non sequitur story that, at worst, holds no weight, and, at best, makes little sense to someone born outside of Indian values and traditions.' [11] The New Zealand Herald gave the film a rating of 3.5 out of 5 and said that, "It's a sobering watch and an interesting, if not outstanding, film." [12] Paul Byrnes of The Sydney Morning Herald gave the film a rating of 4 out of 5 saying that, "Umrika achieves remarkable power as a story by concentrating its view of America through the eyes of people who have never been there." [13] Sharon Hurst of Cinephilia gave the film a rating of 4 out of 5 and said that, "Umrika captures the anomaly and paradox that is life in India. But it is also a finely wrought narrative that ticked enough boxes for it to be a crowd-pleasing winner of the Audience Award at Sundance 2015." [14]


    13 Carrie Fisher TV and Movie Writing Credits You May Not Know (Photos)

    Though she may be immortalized as Princess Leia Organa from "Star Wars", Carrie Fisher was a talented creative who broke past her on-screen persona to produce, write, and direct several different forms of entertainment. To commemorate the legacy of Carrie Fisher, we've piled together some of her best work that the talented creative didn't go above and beyond to boast about.

    "Star Wars" (1977): Fisher's rewrites of her lines as Princess Leia (and all of her notes on her scenes) are beginning to circulate, and while they don't count as official script doctoring, it's worth noting how much Fisher put into crafting Leia's persona.

    "Postcards From the Edge" (1990): Fisher's most recognizable piece of self-crafted work first released as a novel about her life. It would eventually find its way into a full film production, with a screenplay authored by Fisher herself and Meryl Streep in the lead role.

    "The Adventures of Young Indiana Jones" (1993): Fisher's life-long friendship and former romance with Harrison Ford may have spawned some incredible Han and Leia moments, but it also may have influenced the voice with which she wrote one of the show's most memorable episodes. "Paris, October 1916" tells the story of Jones' love affair with a mysterious woman in France. The episode starred a young Sean Patrick Flannery in the lead.

    "Hook" (1991): Fisher didn't completely write this script, but her overhaul of the story as a script doctor is arguably what launched her career as one of the most sought-after script doctors in Hollywood.

    "Sister Act" (1992): Fisher doctored the script for this Whoopi Goldberg classic, tossing in whip-smart lines that sped the movie's pace along and made it the beloved film it is today.

    "Last Action Hero" (1993): Fisher's work primarily floated within the areas of comedies, and while this Schwarzenegger flop may not be on the top of everyone's list, it's worth watching just for the one-liners.

    "So I Married An Axe Murderer" (1993): This classic 90's comedy found it's way under Fisher's pen as her popularity as a writer began to soar.

    "Made in America" (1993): No stranger to Whoopi Goldberg's tastes, Fisher hopped back in and doctored the script for this multiracial classic, which also starred Ted Dansen.

    "The Phantom Menace" (1999) and "Attack of the Clones" (2002): Here's a surprise -- Carrie Fisher noted both "Star Wars" Episodes I and II as being part of her doctored screenplay lineup. There aren't many details on what she did, unfortunately, but it wasn't the first "Star Wars" script she had tooled around with.

    "Coyote Ugly" (2000): This raunchy NYC flick received the Fisher touch at the height of her career as a script doctor.

    "These Old Broads" (2001): This TV movie may be buried under your stacks, but Fisher's signature wit oozes out of the script. Focusing on three actresses who make a comeback after their 60's film finds its revival, the comedy is a great trip down memory lane starring her mother, Debbie Reynolds, and (interestingly) Elizabeth Taylor.

    "Scream 3" (2000): The turn into horror may not have been expected, but the "Scream" film series was -- at the time -- known for its fantastic pre-death lines and situations. Fisher said that she worked on this script, which is believable when you watch the Dewey and Gale arguments.

    "Intolerable Cruelty" (2003): Fisher began losing interest in doctoring scripts as the industry began to change. She told Newsweek in a 2008 interview that "in order to get a rewrite job, you have to submit your notes for your ideas on how to fix the script. So they can get all the notes from all the different writers, keep the notes and not hire you. That's free work and that's what I always call life-wasting events."


    Watch the video: HOW I SOLD MY FILM TO NETFLIX (October 2021).