17.1: New Page

17.1: New Page

Changelog 24 - Tenacious Ten, Rad Recovery, Witty Wiki, and Terrific Themes!

We have been working extremely hard since Android 10’s release last August to port our features to this new version of Android. Thanks to massive refactoring done in some parts of AOSP, we had to work harder than anticipated to bring some features forward, and in some cases, introduced implementations similar to some of our features into AOSP (but we’ll get to that later).

First, let’s talk about naming versioning - you may be thinking “Shouldn’t this be 17.0, as AOSP is on 10, and not 10.1?”. and given our previous versioning, you’d be correct. When the December Android Security Bulletin (ASB) dropped, we rebased on the more feature filled Google Pixel 4/4 XL tag of AOSP. We decided that, in the future, if we decide for any reason to rebase a large number of repos on a different tag, we will uprev our subversion, eg. 17.0 -> 17.1. As per this migration, on March 4th, we locked all lineage-17.0 branches and abandoned existing 17.0 changes. Not to fear, you can always cherry-pick your changes to 17.1, even via the Gerrit UI if you’d like!

New Features!

  • A new partial screenshot UI was implemented that lets you hand select smaller parts of your screen and edit the screenshots. So, feel free to go give it a “shot”!
  • We know many of you have been waiting for news on themes since the CyanogenMod Theme Engine’s deprecation in CyanogenMod 13.0, and those of you in this boat are in for a treat!
    • AOSP’s new ThemePicker app was adapted to have the range of accents you’ve become used to with our old implementation, Styles.
    • We also opted to enable support for font change, icon shape (both QuickSettings and Launcher) and icon style changes (eg. changing the style of the Wi-Fi/Bluetooth icons).
    • Builds are currently based on the android-10.0.0_r31 tag, which is the Pixel 4/4 XL’s tag.

    Lineage Recovery

    Lineage Recovery is now the defacto install solution for LineageOS. It will be built by default for all official devices. This was done purely to streamline the process and prevent having to coordinate releases. This is not at all to speak ill of other custom recoveries, they’re great! Several of them even contributed to Lineage Recovery in one way or another. Maintainers will, as always, be able to specify an alternative recovery on their device’s Wiki page, so long as they provide full instructions for its usage.


    • The Styles API, is now deprecated in favor of the aforementioned ThemePicker app.
      • There is complete feature parity between the two, with ThemePicker now more fully featured!
      • As a byproduct of this, our usual provided AddonSU zip to enable root access for the user is no longer feasible.
      • You’re still welcome to use 3rd party root solutions, and we even have Lineage representatives in regular contact with heads of 3rd party root solutions to help maintain compatibility.
        • Please note that this does not mean that we support said solutions, and if you’d like to report a bug, we still need to know what 3rd party addons you’re using on the ticket, and your problem may stem from said 3rd party addon.
        • Expanded Desktop API conflicted with AOSP gestures implementation now, and the framework part was hard to port due to big code refactor in AOSP.
        • Furthermore, the original implementation had a lot of issues in the past 2 android versions, for example tapping the power button or double tapping the screen did not wake up the device when Expanded Desktop was enabled, soft-key buttons did not appear when opening the keyboard and probably more.

        On the whole, we feel that the 17.1 branch has reached feature and stability parity with 16.0 and is ready for initial release. With 17.1 being the most recent and most actively developed branch, on April 1st, 2020 it will begin receiving nightly builds and 16.0 will be moved to weekly builds.

        LineageOS 17.1 will launch building for a small selection of devices, with additional devices to come as they are marked as both Charter compliant and ready for builds by their maintainer.

        Upgrading to LineageOS 17.1

        To upgrade, please follow the upgrade guide for your device found here.

        If you’re coming from an unofficial build, you need to follow the good ole’ install guide for your device, just like anyone else looking to install LineageOS for the first time. These can be found here.

        Please note that if you’re currently on an official build, you DO NOT need to wipe your device.

        If you are installing from an unofficial build, you MUST wipe data from recovery before installing.

        Importance of the Wiki

        Though the LineageOS Wiki has existed since our inception, we’d like to take this time to remind users to follow instructions on their device’s respective Wiki Page, as given the complexity that AOSP changes like System-As-Root, A/B Partition Scheme, and the forthcoming Dynamic Partitions found on the Pixel 4/4 XL, the instructions many of you are used to following from memory are either no longer valid or are missing very critical steps. As of 17.1, maintainers will be expected to run through the full instructions, and verify they work on their devices. The LineageOS Wiki was recently extended, and maintainers given significantly more options to customize their device’s individual installation, update, and upgrade instructions.

        Developers, Developers, Developers

        Or, in this case, maintainers, maintainers, maintainers. We want your device submissions!

        If you’re a developer and would like to submit your device for officials, it’s easier than ever. Just follow the instructions here.

        The above also applies to people looking to bring back devices which were at one point official, but no longer supported.

        After you submit, within generally a few weeks, but in most cases a week, you’ll receive some feedback on your device submission, and if it’s up to par, invited to our communications instances, and your device forked to LineageOS’s official repos.

        Don’t have the knowledge to maintain a device, but want to contribute to the platform? Gerrit is always open for submissions! Once you’ve contributed a few things, send an email to devrel(at) detailing them, and we’ll get you in the loop.


        Bilingual? Trilingual? Anything-lingual?

        If you think you can help translate LineageOS to a different language, jump over to Crowdin and have a go! If your language is not supported natively in Android, reach us out on Crowdin and we’ll take necessary steps to include your language. For instance, LineageOS is the first Android custom distribution that has complete support for the Welsh (Cymraeg) language thanks to its community of translators.

        Please, contribute to translations only if you are reasonably literate in the target language poor translations waste both our time and yours.

        Beta 1 Update

        Blackmagic Design has already updated to 17.1 three days after the initial release.
        DaVinci Resolve 17.1 Beta 1 adds universal app support for M1 powered Macs.

        DaVinci Resolve 17.1 requires a database upgrade from DaVinci Resolve 16.2.7 and previous versions. BMD strongly recommends you back up your existing database (both DiskDB and PostgreSQL) before performing an upgrade.

        Key Features

        BMD states DaVinci Resolve 17.1 Beta 1 offers universal app support for M1 powered Macs to provide better performance on small laptops. Plus the unified memory architecture on M1 enables DaVinci Resolve 17.1 to leverage the power of CPU and GPU processing more effectively, avoiding the need for PCI Express transfers. Significantly, the combination of M1, Metal processing, and DaVinci Resolve 17.1 offers up to 5 times better performance when compared to previous generation computers. DaVinci Resolve 17.1 is also compatible with macOS Big Sur, and is initially only available for Mac.

        The public beta of DaVinci Resolve 17.1 for M1 powered Macs is available for download now from the Blackmagic Design web site.

        “We’re excited to support the new Macs powered by M1. We think it’s important that DaVinci Resolve customers can purchase these new Macs and run native software to get the best performance possible. The DaVinci Resolve engineering team has done such a great job and it’s exciting to be part of this technology revolution.”

        Grant Petty
        Blackmagic Design CEO

        DaVinci Resolve 17 updates the cut page with smarter new features designed to help you finish quick turn around projects faster. The new metadata slate view with bin dividers is a new way to visually view, sort, and find shots quickly. Audio trim mode displays larger waveforms for more precise trimming. Smart reframing automatically re-frames images so you can export projects in vertical, square, or other aspect ratios without having to manually reposition every shot. A new icon view in the library lets you preview effects, transitions, and titles. You can import and edit projects from ATEM Mini Pro ISO, there’s a new clip inspector, fast timeline switching and more.

        Metadata View and Clip Sorting

        Metadata slate view with bin dividers makes it easy to sort and find clips based on scene, shot, camera and more. You get cards with thumbnail and metadata, which is determined by sort order. When used with the source tape, it’s the fastest way to jump in and out of scenes or groups of shots.

        Smart Reframefor Social Media

        Now you can edit in 16:9 HD or Ultra HD and quickly create square or vertical versions for posting to Instagram and other apps. The DaVinci Neural Engine automatically identifies faces and repositions them inside the new frame so you don’t have to do it manually. You can even fine-tune the results.

        Updated Clip Inspector

        While the viewer tool strip is great for quick adjustments, the inspector lets you access virtually all audio and video settings, metadata, RAW image controls, and more! You can quickly switch between groups of settings using the tabs at the top. Settings can be animated using the diamond keyframe buttons!

        New proxy workflows dramatically improve performance and make it easy to move projects between systems. You can now sync clips on the timeline and convert them to a multicam group, make source side adjustments before editing a clip into a project, share individual timelines and bins, remove 3:2 pulldown in realtime, and more. The edit page also supports mattes and keying for composites, motion blur on certain transitions, and the ability to render effects heavy portions of the timeline to a new file. The DaVinci Neural Engine also gives you scene cut detection, de-interlacing and smart reframing.

        17.1: New Page

        Altium Designer Documentation

        Altium Designer Documentation

        If would like to speak with a representative, please contact your local Altium office.
        Copyright © 2019 Altium Limited

        If would like to speak with a representative, please contact your local Altium office.
        Copyright © 2019 Altium Limited

        Got it. You actually don’t need an evaluation license for that.

        Click the button below to download the latest Altium Designer installer.

        If would like to speak with a representative, please contact your local Altium office.
        Copyright © 2019 Altium Limited

        Please fill out the form below to get a quote for a new seat of Altium Designer.

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        Valid students can get their very own 6-month Altium Designer Student License for FREE! Just fill out the form below to request your Student License today.

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        Got it. You can download a free Altium Designer Viewer license which is valid for a 6 months.

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        That’s great! Making things is awesome. We have the perfect program for you.

        Upverter is a free community-driven platform designed specifically to meet the needs of makers like you.

        If would like to speak with a representative, please contact your local Altium office.
        Copyright © 2019 Altium Limited

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        Запланированная дата выхода: Em Breve

        171 has a wide city inspired by Brazilian scenarios, every detail and the element present in the game environment was designed to bring a feeling of familiarity to the player, a city with life with pedestrians and cars walking around the map that interacts with each other and with the map , player with weapons and can interact with the elements present in the city, but be careful, as every action can cause a reaction, acting aggressively can attract attention, make the innocent keep their distance and bring problems not only with the police, but also with local thugs.

        This is a Pre-Alpha version, the current content may contain bugs, the mechanics present in the game may be subject to instability or be temporarily disabled to receive the necessary polishing, the current content does not represent the final quality of the game and they should modified and / or enabled in later versions.

        More Great Features

        DaVinci Resolve 17 includes user interface and workflow improvements across the entire app! You’ll find new and improved format support on the media page, new delivery options, and a unified inspector design on the media, cut, edit, and Fairlight pages. DaVinci Resolve 17 also features consistent timeline navigation across all pages, better metadata support, new image scaling algorithms, the ability to share smart bins, smart filters and optimized media across all projects on a system, and even more GPU and CPU accelerated Resolve FX. Plus, there’s a new workflow integration API so third party developers can integrate their asset management systems and other tools with DaVinci Resolve!

        Free Multi User Collaboration!

        Now anyone can build their own post production studio! The free version of DaVinci Resolve now includes the revolutionary multi user collaboration tools previously available in DaVinci Resolve Studio. That means you can have multiple users all working on the same project at the same time, for free!

        New and Improved Resolve FX

        The 11 brand new Resolve FX in DaVinci Resolve 17 are texture pop, detail recover, video collage, 3D keyer, HSL keyer, luma keyer, smear, motion trails, noise reduction, transform and false color. The object removal, dead pixel fixer, dust buster, blur and film grain plug-ins have also been improved.

        Updated Inspector Layout

        A new unified inspector design can be found on the cut and edit pages. This makes DaVinci Resolve easier to learn because adjusting and animating clip settings is now done the same way on every page. There are tabs for video, audio, effects, metadata, RAW controls and more.

        Additional Format Support

        Support for growing files in the media pool lets you start editing while files are still being recorded! There’s decoding support for QuickTime PNG, uncompressed RGB 8-bit and YUV 10-bit AVI, and spanned Panasonic 8K SHV clips. There’s improved GoPro CineForm support, mp3 on Linux and HTJ2K.

        Increased Video Metadata Support

        DaVinci Resolve 17 support for frame based metadata from Blackmagic RAW, ARRI, RED and Sony camera files, along with decoding and rendering per frame EXR metadata. There’s also improved metadata support for Sony MXF, IMF MCA audio and non HDR DCP export, and HDR tags in DCP workflows.

        New Integration and Encoding APIs

        In addition to existing Python and LUA scripting, DaVinci Resolve 17 adds a new workflow integration API and a new encoding API. These APIs allow third party developers to create integrated asset and workflow management solutions for DaVinci Resolve, as well as encoder plug-ins for custom output options.

        A. A clerk of a circuit court shall, for services performed by virtue of his office, charge the following fees:

        2. For recording and indexing in the proper book any writing and all matters therewith, or for recording and indexing anything not otherwise provided for, $18 for an instrument or document consisting of 10 or fewer pages or sheets $32 for an instrument or document consisting of 11 to 30 pages or sheets and $52 for an instrument or document consisting of 31 or more pages or sheets. Whenever any writing to be recorded includes plat or map sheets no larger than eight and one-half inches by 14 inches, such plat or map sheets shall be counted as ordinary pages for the purpose of computing the recording fee due pursuant to this section. A fee of $17 per page or sheet shall be charged with respect to plat or map sheets larger than eight and one-half inches by 14 inches. Only a single fee as authorized by this subdivision shall be charged for recording a certificate of satisfaction that releases the original deed of trust and any corrected or revised deeds of trust. Three dollars and fifty cents of the fee collected for recording and indexing shall be designated for use in preserving the permanent records of the circuit courts. The sum collected for this purpose shall be administered by The Library of Virginia in cooperation with the circuit court clerks.

        3. For appointing and qualifying any personal representative, committee, trustee, guardian, or other fiduciary, in addition to any fees for recording allowed by this section, $20 for estates not exceeding $50,000, $25 for estates not exceeding $100,000 and $30 for estates exceeding $100,000. No fee shall be charged for estates of $5,000 or less.

        4. For entering and granting and for issuing any license, other than a marriage license or a hunting and fishing license, and administering an oath when necessary, $10.

        5. For issuing a marriage license, attaching certificate, administering or receiving all necessary oaths or affidavits, indexing and recording, $10. For recording an order to celebrate the rites of marriage pursuant to § 20-25, $25 to be paid by the petitioner.

        6. For making out any bond, other than those under § 17.1-267 or subdivision A 4, administering all necessary oaths and writing proper affidavits, $3.

        7. For all services rendered by the clerk in any garnishment or attachment proceeding, the clerk's fee shall be $15 in cases not exceeding $500 and $25 in all other cases.

        8. For making out a copy of any paper, record, or electronic record to go out of the office, which is not otherwise specifically provided for herein, a fee of .50 for each page or, if an electronic record, each image. From such fees, the clerk shall reimburse the locality the costs of making out the copies and pay the remaining fees directly to the Commonwealth. The funds to recoup the cost of making out the copies shall be deposited with the county or city treasurer or Director of Finance, and the governing body shall budget and appropriate such funds to be used to support the cost of copies pursuant to this subdivision. For purposes of this section, the costs of making out the copies authorized under this section shall include costs included in the lease and maintenance agreements for the equipment and the technology needed to operate electronic systems in the clerk's office used to make out the copies, but shall not include salaries or related benefits. The costs of copies shall otherwise be determined in accordance with § 2.2-3704. However, there shall be no charge to the recipient of a final order or decree to send an attested copy to such party.

        9. For annexing the seal of the court to any paper, writing the certificate of the clerk accompanying it, the clerk shall charge $2 and for attaching the certificate of the judge, if the clerk is requested to do so, the clerk shall charge an additional .50.

        10. In any case in which a person is convicted of a violation of any provision of Article 1 (§ 18.2-247 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 18.2 or is subject to a disposition under § 18.2-251, the clerk shall assess a fee of $150 for each felony conviction and each felony disposition under § 18.2-251 which shall be taxed as costs to the defendant and shall be paid into the Drug Offender Assessment and Treatment Fund.

        11. In any case in which a person is convicted of a violation of any provision of Article 1 (§ 18.2-247 et seq.) of Chapter 7 of Title 18.2 or is subject to a disposition under § 18.2-251, the clerk shall assess a fee for each misdemeanor conviction and each misdemeanor disposition under § 18.2-251, which shall be taxed as costs to the defendant and shall be paid into the Drug Offender Assessment and Treatment Fund as provided in § 17.1-275.8.

        12. Upon the defendant's being required to successfully complete traffic school, a mature driver motor vehicle crash prevention course, or a driver improvement clinic in lieu of a finding of guilty, the court shall charge the defendant fees and costs as if he had been convicted.

        13. In all civil actions that include one or more claims for the award of monetary damages the clerk's fee chargeable to the plaintiff shall be $100 in cases seeking recovery not exceeding $49,999 $200 in cases seeking recovery exceeding $49,999, but not exceeding $100,000 $250 in cases seeking recovery exceeding $100,000, but not exceeding $500,000 and $300 in cases seeking recovery exceeding $500,000. Ten dollars of each such fee shall be apportioned to the Courts Technology Fund established under § 17.1-132. A fee of $25 shall be paid by the plaintiff at the time of instituting a condemnation case, in lieu of any other fees. There shall be no fee charged for the filing of a cross-claim or setoff in any pending action. However, the fees prescribed by this subdivision shall be charged upon the filing of a counterclaim or a claim impleading a third-party defendant. The fees prescribed above shall be collected upon the filing of papers for the commencement of civil actions. This subdivision shall not be applicable to cases filed in the Supreme Court of Virginia.

        13a. For the filing of any petition seeking court approval of a settlement where no action has yet been filed, the clerk's fee, chargeable to the petitioner, shall be $50, to be paid by the petitioner at the time of filing the petition.

        14. In addition to the fees chargeable for civil actions, for the costs of proceedings for judgments by confession under §§ 8.01-432 through 8.01-440, the clerk shall tax as costs (i) the cost of registered or certified mail (ii) the statutory writ tax, in the amount required by law to be paid on a suit for the amount of the confessed judgment (iii) for the sheriff for serving each copy of the order entering judgment, $12 and (iv) for docketing the judgment and issuing executions thereon, the same fees as prescribed in subdivision A 17.

        15. For qualifying notaries public, including the making out of the bond and any copies thereof, administering the necessary oaths, and entering the order, $10.

        16. For each habeas corpus proceeding, the clerk shall receive $10 for all services required thereunder. This subdivision shall not be applicable to such suits filed in the Supreme Court of Virginia.

        17. For docketing and indexing a judgment from any other court of the Commonwealth, for docketing and indexing a judgment in the new name of a judgment debtor pursuant to the provisions of § 8.01-451, but not when incident to a divorce, for noting and filing the assignment of a judgment pursuant to § 8.01-452, a fee of $5 and for issuing an abstract of any recorded judgment, when proper to do so, a fee of $5 and for filing, docketing, indexing and mailing notice of a foreign judgment, a fee of $20.

        18. For all services rendered by the clerk in any court proceeding for which no specific fee is provided by law, the clerk shall charge $10, to be paid by the party filing said papers at the time of filing however, this subdivision shall not be applicable in a divorce cause prior to and including the entry of a decree of divorce from the bond of matrimony.

        21. For making the endorsements on a forthcoming bond and recording the matters relating to such bond pursuant to the provisions of § 8.01-529, $1.

        22. For all services rendered by the clerk in any proceeding pursuant to § 57-8 or 57-15, $10.

        23. For preparation and issuance of a subpoena duces tecum, $5.

        24. For all services rendered by the clerk in matters under § 8.01-217 relating to change of name, $20 however, this subdivision shall not be applicable in cases where the change of name is incident to a divorce.

        25. For providing court records or documents on microfilm, per frame, .50.

        26. In all divorce and separate maintenance proceedings, and all civil actions that do not include one or more claims for the award of monetary damages, the clerk's fee chargeable to the plaintiff shall be $60, $10 of which shall be apportioned to the Courts Technology Fund established under § 17.1-132 to be paid by the plaintiff at the time of instituting the suit, which shall include the furnishing of a duly certified copy of the final decree. The fees prescribed by this subdivision shall be charged upon the filing of a counterclaim or a claim impleading a third-party defendant. However, no fee shall be charged for (i) the filing of a cross-claim or setoff in any pending suit or (ii) the filing of a counterclaim or any other responsive pleading in any annulment, divorce, or separate maintenance proceeding. In divorce cases, when there is a merger of a divorce of separation a mensa et thoro into a decree of divorce a vinculo, the above mentioned fee shall include the furnishing of a duly certified copy of both such decrees.

        27. For the acceptance of credit or debit cards in lieu of money to collect and secure all fees, including filing fees, fines, restitution, forfeiture, penalties and costs, the clerk shall collect from the person presenting such credit or debit card a reasonable convenience fee for the processing of such credit or debit card. Such convenience fee shall not exceed four percent of the amount paid for the transaction or a flat fee of $2 per transaction. The clerk may set a lower convenience fee for electronic filing of civil or criminal proceedings pursuant to § 17.1-258.3. Nothing herein shall be construed to prohibit the clerk from outsourcing the processing of credit and debit card transactions to a third-party private vendor engaged by the clerk. Convenience fees shall be used to cover operational expenses as defined in § 17.1-295.

        28. For the return of any check unpaid by the financial institution on which it was drawn or notice is received from the credit or debit card issuer that payment will not be made for any reason, the clerk may collect a fee of $50 or 10 percent of the amount of the payment, whichever is greater.

        29. For all services rendered, except in cases in which costs are assessed pursuant to § 17.1-275.1, 17.1-275.2, 17.1-275.3, or 17.1-275.4, in an adoption proceeding, a fee of $20, in addition to the fee imposed under § 63.2-1246, to be paid by the petitioner or petitioners. For each petition for adoption filed pursuant to § 63.2-1201, except those filed pursuant to subdivisions 5 and 6 of § 63.2-1210, an additional $50 filing fee as required under § 63.2-1201 shall be deposited in the Virginia Birth Father Registry Fund pursuant to § 63.2-1249.

        30. For issuing a duplicate license for one lost or destroyed as provided in § 29.1-334, a fee in the same amount as the fee for the original license.

        31. For the filing of any petition as provided in §§ 33.2-1023, 33.2-1024, and 33.2-1027, a fee of $5 to be paid by the petitioner and for the recordation of a certificate or copy thereof, as provided for in § 33.2-1021, as well as for any order of the court relating thereto, the clerk shall charge the same fee as for recording a deed as provided for in this section, to be paid by the party upon whose request such certificate is recorded or order is entered.

        32. For making up, certifying and transmitting original record pursuant to the Rules of the Supreme Court, including all papers necessary to be copied and other services rendered, except in cases in which costs are assessed pursuant to § 17.1-275.1, 17.1-275.2, 17.1-275.3, 17.1-275.4, 17.1-275.7, 17.1-275.8, or 17.1-275.9, a fee of $20.

        34. For filings, etc., under the Uniform Federal Lien Registration Act (§ 55.1-653 et seq.), the fees shall be as prescribed in that Act.

        36. For recordation of certificate and registration of names of nonresident owners in accordance with § 59.1-74, a fee of $10.

        37. For maintaining the information required under the Overhead High Voltage Line Safety Act (§ 59.1-406 et seq.), the fee as prescribed in § 59.1-411.

        38. For lodging, indexing, and preserving a will in accordance with § 64.2-409, a fee of $5.

        39. For filing a financing statement in accordance with § 8.9A-505, the fee shall be as prescribed under § 8.9A-525.

        40. For filing a termination statement in accordance with § 8.9A-513, the fee shall be as prescribed under § 8.9A-525.

        41. For filing assignment of security interest in accordance with § 8.9A-514, the fee shall be as prescribed under § 8.9A-525.

        42. For filing a petition as provided in §§ 64.2-2001 and 64.2-2013, the fee shall be $10.

        43. For issuing any execution, and recording the return thereof, a fee of $1.50.

        44. For the preparation and issuance of a summons for interrogation by an execution creditor, a fee of $5. If there is no outstanding execution, and one is requested herewith, the clerk shall be allowed an additional fee of $1.50, in accordance with subdivision A 44.

        B. In accordance with § 17.1-281, the clerk shall collect fees under subdivisions A 7, A 13, A 16, A 18 if applicable, A 20, A 22, A 24, A 26, A 29, and A 31 to be designated for courthouse construction, renovation or maintenance.

        C. In accordance with § 17.1-278, the clerk shall collect fees under subdivisions A 7, A 13, A 16, A 18 if applicable, A 20, A 22, A 24, A 26, A 29, and A 31 to be designated for services provided for the poor, without charge, by a nonprofit legal aid program.

        D. In accordance with § 42.1-70, the clerk shall collect fees under subdivisions A 7, A 13, A 16, A 18 if applicable, A 20, A 22, A 24, A 26, A 29, and A 31 to be designated for public law libraries.

        E. All fees collected pursuant to subdivision A 27 and § 17.1-276 shall be deposited by the clerk into a special revenue fund held by the clerk, which will restrict the funds to their statutory purpose.

        F. The provisions of this section shall control the fees charged by clerks of circuit courts for the services above described.

        Code 1950, § 14-123, p. 614 1952, c. 146 1954, c. 138 1956, c. 217 1964, c. 386, § 14.1-112 1966, c. 217 1970, c. 522 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 95 1972, cc. 626, 627, 647 1973, c. 159 1974, cc. 370, 523 1975, c. 226 1976, c. 344 1977, cc. 449, 463 1978, c. 502 1980, c. 145 1983, c. 103 1984, cc. 225, 356 1985, cc. 94, 201 1986, c. 538 1988, cc. 49, 52 1989, c. 595 1990, cc. 88, 738, 971 1992, c. 784 1993, cc. 95, 299, 386 1994, cc. 64, 432, 498, 842 1995, cc. 51, 371, 440, 463, 525, § 14.1-111.1 1996, cc. 344, 976 1997, cc. 215, 921 1998, cc. 783, 840, 872 1999, cc. 9, 1003 2000, cc. 826, 830 2001, cc. 481, 496, 501, 836 2002, cc. 831, 832 2004, c. 1004 2005, cc. 373, 681 2006, cc. 318, 623, 718, 825 2007, cc. 548, 626, 646 2009, c. 594 2010, c. 874 2011, cc. 707, 890 2012, cc. 420, 714, 780 2013, c. 263 2014, c. 282 2015, c. 641 2017, c. 200 2020, cc. 68, 69, 589, 653 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 427.

        The chapters of the acts of assembly referenced in the historical citation at the end of this section may not constitute a comprehensive list of such chapters and may exclude chapters whose provisions have expired.

        17.1 The Westward Spirit

        While a small number of settlers had pushed westward before the mid-nineteenth century, the land west of the Mississippi was largely unexplored. Most Americans, if they thought of it at all, viewed this territory as an arid wasteland suitable only for Indians whom the federal government had displaced from eastern lands in previous generations. The reflections of early explorers who conducted scientific treks throughout the West tended to confirm this belief. Major Stephen Harriman Long, who commanded an expedition through Missouri and into the Yellowstone region in 1819–1820, frequently described the Great Plains as a arid and useless region, suitable as nothing more than a “great American desert.” But, beginning in the 1840s, a combination of economic opportunity and ideological encouragement changed the way Americans thought of the West. The federal government offered a number of incentives, making it viable for Americans to take on the challenge of seizing these rough lands from others and subsequently taming them. Still, most Americans who went west needed some financial security at the outset of their journey even with government aid, the truly poor could not make the trip. The cost of moving an entire family westward, combined with the risks as well as the questionable chances of success, made the move prohibitive for most. While the economic Panic of 1837 led many to question the promise of urban America, and thus turn their focus to the promise of commercial farming in the West, the Panic also resulted in many lacking the financial resources to make such a commitment. For most, the dream to “Go west, young man” remained unfulfilled.

        While much of the basis for westward expansion was economic, there was also a more philosophical reason, which was bound up in the American belief that the country—and the “heathens” who populated it—was destined to come under the civilizing rule of Euro-American settlers and their superior technology, most notably railroads and the telegraph. While the extent to which that belief was a heartfelt motivation held by most Americans, or simply a rationalization of the conquests that followed, remains debatable, the clashes—both physical and cultural—that followed this western migration left scars on the country that are still felt today.


        The concept of Manifest Destiny found its roots in the long-standing traditions of territorial expansion upon which the nation itself was founded. This phrase, which implies divine encouragement for territorial expansion, was coined by magazine editor John O’Sullivan in 1845, when he wrote in the United States Magazine and Democratic Review that “it was our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our multiplying millions.” Although the context of O’Sullivan’s original article was to encourage expansion into the newly acquired Texas territory, the spirit it invoked would subsequently be used to encourage westward settlement throughout the rest of the nineteenth century. Land developers, railroad magnates, and other investors capitalized on the notion to encourage westward settlement for their own financial benefit. Soon thereafter, the federal government encouraged this inclination as a means to further develop the West during the Civil War, especially at its outset, when concerns over the possible expansion of slavery deeper into western territories was a legitimate fear.

        The idea was simple: Americans were destined—and indeed divinely ordained—to expand democratic institutions throughout the continent. As they spread their culture, thoughts, and customs, they would, in the process, “improve” the lives of the native inhabitants who might otherwise resist Protestant institutions and, more importantly, economic development of the land. O’Sullivan may have coined the phrase, but the concept had preceded him: Throughout the 1800s, politicians and writers had stated the belief that the United States was destined to rule the continent. O’Sullivan’s words, which resonated in the popular press, matched the economic and political goals of a federal government increasingly committed to expansion.

        Manifest Destiny justified in Americans’ minds their right and duty to govern any other groups they encountered during their expansion, as well as absolved them of any questionable tactics they employed in the process. While the commonly held view of the day was of a relatively empty frontier, waiting for the arrival of the settlers who could properly exploit the vast resources for economic gain, the reality was quite different. Hispanic communities in the Southwest, diverse tribes throughout the western states, as well as other settlers from Asia and Western Europe already lived in many parts of the country. American expansion would necessitate a far more complex and involved exchange than simply filling empty space.

        Still, in part as a result of the spark lit by O’Sullivan and others, waves of Americans and recently arrived immigrants began to move west in wagon trains. They travelled along several identifiable trails: first the Oregon Trail, then later the Santa Fe and California Trails, among others. The Oregon Trail is the most famous of these western routes. Two thousand miles long and barely passable on foot in the early nineteenth century, by the 1840s, wagon trains were a common sight. Between 1845 and 1870, considered to be the height of migration along the trail, over 400,000 settlers followed this path west from Missouri (Figure 17.3).

        Defining American

        Who Will Set Limits to Our Onward March?

        America is destined for better deeds. It is our unparalleled glory that we have no reminiscences of battle fields, but in defense [sic] of humanity, of the oppressed of all nations, of the rights of conscience, the rights of personal enfranchisement. Our annals describe no scenes of horrid carnage, where men were led on by hundreds of thousands to slay one another, dupes and victims to emperors, kings, nobles, demons in the human form called heroes. We have had patriots to defend our homes, our liberties, but no aspirants to crowns or thrones nor have the American people ever suffered themselves to be led on by wicked ambition to depopulate the land, to spread desolation far and wide, that a human being might be placed on a seat of supremacy. . . .

        The expansive future is our arena, and for our history. We are entering on its untrodden space, with the truths of God in our minds, beneficent objects in our hearts, and with a clear conscience unsullied by the past. We are the nation of human progress, and who will, what can, set limits to our onward march? Providence is with us, and no earthly power can.

        Think about how this quotation resonated with different groups of Americans at the time. When looked at through today’s lens, the actions of the westward-moving settlers were fraught with brutality and racism. At the time, however, many settlers felt they were at the pinnacle of democracy, and that with no aristocracy or ancient history, America was a new world where anyone could succeed. Even then, consider how the phrase “anyone” was restricted by race, gender, and nationality.

        Click and Explore

        Visit Across the Plains in ‘64 to follow one family making their way westward from Iowa to Oregon. Click on a few of the entries and see how the author describes their journey, from the expected to the surprising.


        To assist the settlers in their move westward and transform the migration from a trickle into a steady flow, Congress passed two significant pieces of legislation in 1862: the Homestead Act and the Pacific Railway Act. Born largely out of President Abraham Lincoln’s growing concern that a potential Union defeat in the early stages of the Civil War might result in the expansion of slavery westward, Lincoln hoped that such laws would encourage the expansion of a “free soil” mentality across the West.

        The Homestead Act allowed any head of household, or individual over the age of twenty-one—including unmarried women—to receive a parcel of 160 acres for only a nominal filing fee. All that recipients were required to do in exchange was to “improve the land” within a period of five years of taking possession. The standards for improvement were minimal: Owners could clear a few acres, build small houses or barns, or maintain livestock. Under this act, the government transferred over 270 million acres of public domain land to private citizens.

        The Pacific Railway Act was pivotal in helping settlers move west more quickly, as well as move their farm products, and later cattle and mining deposits, back east. The first of many railway initiatives, this act commissioned the Union Pacific Railroad to build new track west from Omaha, Nebraska, while the Central Pacific Railroad moved east from Sacramento, California. The law provided each company with ownership of all public lands within two hundred feet on either side of the track laid, as well as additional land grants and payment through load bonds, prorated on the difficulty of the terrain it crossed. Because of these provisions, both companies made a significant profit, whether they were crossing hundreds of miles of open plains, or working their way through the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. As a result, the nation’s first transcontinental railroad was completed when the two companies connected their tracks at Promontory, Utah, in the spring of 1869. Other tracks, including lines radiating from this original one, subsequently created a network that linked all corners of the nation (Figure 17.4).

        In addition to legislation designed to facilitate western settlement, the U.S. government assumed an active role on the ground, building numerous forts throughout the West to protect and assist settlers during their migration. Forts such as Fort Laramie in Wyoming (built in 1834) and Fort Apache in Arizona (1870) served as protection from nearby Native Americans as well as maintained peace between potential warring tribes. Others located throughout Colorado and Wyoming became important trading posts for miners and fur trappers. Those built in Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas served primarily to provide relief for farmers during times of drought or related hardships. Forts constructed along the California coastline provided protection in the wake of the Mexican-American War as well as during the American Civil War. These locations subsequently serviced the U.S. Navy and provided important support for growing Pacific trade routes. Whether as army posts constructed for the protection of White settlers and to maintain peace among Native tribes, or as trading posts to further facilitate the development of the region, such forts proved to be vital contributions to westward migration.


        In the nineteenth century, as today, it took money to relocate and start a new life. Due to the initial cost of relocation, land, and supplies, as well as months of preparing the soil, planting, and subsequent harvesting before any produce was ready for market, the original wave of western settlers along the Oregon Trail in the 1840s and 1850s consisted of moderately prosperous, White, native-born farming families of the East. But the passage of the Homestead Act and completion of the first transcontinental railroad meant that, by 1870, the possibility of western migration was opened to Americans of more modest means. What started as a trickle became a steady flow of migration that would last until the end of the century.

        Nearly 400,000 settlers had made the trek westward by the height of the movement in 1870. The vast majority were men, although families also migrated, despite incredible hardships for women with young children. More recent immigrants also migrated west, with the largest numbers coming from Northern Europe and Canada. Germans, Scandinavians, and Irish were among the most common. These ethnic groups tended to settle close together, creating strong rural communities that mirrored the way of life they had left behind. According to U.S. Census Bureau records, the number of Scandinavians living in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century exploded, from barely 18,000 in 1850 to over 1.1 million in 1900. During that same time period, the German-born population in the United States grew from 584,000 to nearly 2.7 million and the Irish-born population grew from 961,000 to 1.6 million. As they moved westward, several thousand immigrants established homesteads in the Midwest, primarily in Minnesota and Wisconsin, where, as of 1900, over one-third of the population was foreign-born, and in North Dakota, whose immigrant population stood at 45 percent at the turn of the century. Compared to European immigrants, those from China were much less numerous, but still significant. More than 200,000 Chinese arrived in California between 1876 and 1890, albeit for entirely different reasons related to the Gold Rush.

        In addition to a significant European migration westward, several thousand African Americans migrated west following the Civil War, as much to escape the racism and violence of the Old South as to find new economic opportunities. They were known as exodusters , referencing the biblical flight from Egypt, because they fled the racism of the South, with most of them headed to Kansas from Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. Over twenty-five thousand exodusters arrived in Kansas in 1879–1880 alone. By 1890, over 500,000 Blacks lived west of the Mississippi River. Although the majority of Black migrants became farmers, approximately twelve thousand worked as cowboys during the Texas cattle drives. Some also became “Buffalo Soldiers” in the wars against Native Americans. “Buffalo Soldiers” were African Americans allegedly so-named by various Native tribes who equated their black, curly hair with that of the buffalo. Many had served in the Union army in the Civil War and were now organized into six, all-Black cavalry and infantry units whose primary duties were to protect settlers from Native American attacks during the westward migration, as well as to assist in building the infrastructure required to support western settlement (Figure 17.5).

        Click and Explore

        The Oxford African American Studies Center features photographs and stories about Black homesteaders. From exodusters to all-Black settlements, the essay describes the largely hidden role that African Americans played in western expansion.

        While White easterners, immigrants, and African Americans were moving west, several hundred thousand Hispanics had already settled in the American Southwest prior to the U.S. government seizing the land during its war with Mexico (1846–1848). The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war in 1848, granted American citizenship to those who chose to stay in the United States, as the land switched from Mexican to U.S. ownership. Under the conditions of the treaty, Mexicans retained the right to their language, religion, and culture, as well as the property they held. As for citizenship, they could choose one of three options: 1) declare their intent to live in the United States but retain Mexican citizenship 2) become U.S. citizens with all rights under the constitution or 3) leave for Mexico. Despite such guarantees, within one generation, these new Hispanic American citizens found their culture under attack, and legal protection of their property all but non-existent.

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          Troubleshooting SMART Notebook 17.1

          How to troubleshoot the most common issues in SMART Notebook software.

          If your issue isn’t listed here, check out our knowledge base. You’ll find a wealth of troubleshooting articles that we update as issues arise and are resolved.

          • troubleshooting
          • problems
          • issues
          • common issues
          • basic issues
          • Adobe flash

          Videos or animated objects won’t play in your SMART Notebook lesson because Adobe Flash Player won’t load.

          Adobe is discontinuing Flash Player and will remove all support for it in 2020. HTML5 is replacing Adobe Flash Player as the preferred online platform for multimedia content, so everyone who creates online content, including SMART Technologies, is switching to HTML5 for creating and playing multimedia files, such as videos and animations.

          To promote the use of files that will work once Adobe Flash Player is discontinued, we removed support for the player in SMART Notebook 17. See a list of the Adobe Flash Player objects that SMART Notebook software no longer supports.

          We’ve already replaced the most popular Adobe Flash Player activities in the SMART Notebook Gallery with HTML5 activities. See a list of the Adobe Flash Player activities that SMART Notebook software converts.

          To prepare for Adobe Flash Player’s discontinuation, delete unsupported, Flash based objects and activities from your SMART Notebook lessons and create new ones using the tools available in SMART Notebook 17. Download a step-by-step guide at

          You can create fun and engaging activities in SMART lab . Learn more about what SMART lab offers and how to use activities.

          If you really need to play a Flash based file from an old lesson, you can attempt to open it in an Adobe Flash enabled web browser.

          You have a network connection issue.

          Several components of SMART Notebook software (activation, maestro, lab, response 2) require an active Internet connection and access to URLs that may be blocked by a network firewall or other filters. See Device and Network Requirements for a list of URLs that must be whitelisted.

          On Windows computers, SMART Notebook software doesn’t recognize handwriting in your language.

          Install the appropriate language pack (see Setting the language for SMART Notebook 17).

          You want your handwriting to appear more smooth and natural in SMART Notebook software.

          Use the Calligraphic pen type rather than the Standard pen type (see Writing, drawing and erasing digital ink).

          Turn off the Single Finger Panning feature. See

          When you write with a pen, SMART Notebook software on the Windows 7 operating system interprets your action as a mouse click.

          Turn off the Flicks feature. See

          Your file contains large pictures and runs slowly when you open it in SMART Notebook software.

          Export an optimized version of the file (see Setting image optimization preferences).

          You receive a file or feature-specific error.

          Restart the computer and attempt to view the SMART Notebook file again.

          Try to create a new file with the problematic content (for example, add a new instance of a photo that may not have appeared) to determine if the issue is widespread.

          Try a different user account or a different computer and access the SMART Notebook file to see if the issue is specific to the file or the user account.

          The SMART Notebook file is corrupt and can’t be opened with SMART Notebook software.

          If you are unable to open a file with SMART Notebook software, further information is available at this support page.

          The multitouch gestures aren’t working in SMART Notebook software.

          Ensure that your interactive product supports multitouch gestures and that multitouch gestures are enabled.

          You have received an installation error.

          Troubleshooting procedures for installation errors vary according to operating system, the specific error message, and the environment and specifications of the computer. Here are some general tips and tricks you can try if you run into an error message during installation. See this KB article for additional information.

          Run Windows updates and apply any updates.

          Run Scan to repair any problematic system files. See this support document for more information.

          Run the installation again.

          Run macOS or OS X updates and apply any updates.

          Repair disk permissions (if applicable). See this Apple support site document for more information.

          Run the installation again.

          You create a SMART Notebook lesson at home, but quizzes or questions are missing when you or a colleague present it from a different computer.

          If you’re using a computer other than the one on which you created the lesson, you can open your lesson, but you must sign in to your SMART Notebook account before you can access all the features in SMART lab and SMART response 2.

          Select Account from the SMART Notebook menu to sign in and access the missing content.

          When you create a .notebook file on one computer and then open it on another computer, the objects in the file appear differently.

          There are several possible causes. The following are the most common:

          You used a font that’s installed on one computer but not on the other.

          The two computers have different operating systems.

          The two computers have different versions of SMART Notebook software.

          You want to move, resize or otherwise change an object, but when you do so, you also move, resize or otherwise change other objects.

          The objects are grouped. Any changes you make to one object affect the other objects.

          Select the objects, and then select Format > Group > Ungroup to ungroup them. You can then move, resize or otherwise change the individual objects.

          You want to move, resize or otherwise change an object but can’t. A lock icon appears instead of a menu arrow when you select the object.

          The object is locked, which prevents you from making changes to it. To unlock the object, select it, press its lock icon , and then select Unlock.

          One object on a page covers another:

          You want to change this so that the second object covers the first:

          As you create objects, newer objects cover older objects automatically if the objects are in the same position on the page.

          You can change the order of objects. For more information, see Rearranging stacked objects.

          When you fill an object with a picture that is larger than the object, the picture is cut off:

          Conversely, when you fill an object with a picture that is smaller than the object, the picture is tiled:

          When filling an object with a picture, select Scale image to fit to resize the picture to fit the object:

          You want to obtain a SMART Notebook product key.

          The product key is provided through the SMART software portal. The SMART software portal sign in information is given to the contacts provided when SMART Notebook software was purchased. Contact your technical administrator to obtain your SMART Notebook product key.

          If you are the technical administrator, you should have received an email with your sign in credentials. Sign in to the SMART software portal to view all SMART software product keys available to your organization.

          You want to stop relying on a product key and instead be able to sign in to your SMART account to use SMART Notebook 17 on any computer where it is installed.

          Contact your technical administrator and ask to have your SMART account ID associated with your school’s subscription to SMART Learning Suite in the SMART software portal. (Your SMART account ID is the email you use to sign in to your SMART account.)

          If you are the technical administrator or you purchased Notebook yourself, sign in to the SMART software portal and make the change described above.

          You must be using SMART Notebook 17 or later (17.1 recommended).

          You need to renew your SMART Learning Suite subscription.

          Contact your SMART authorized reseller to renew your SMART Learning Suite subscription.

          You want to determine the version of SMART Notebook software to which your subscription entitles you.

          Generally, you’re entitled to download and install any version of SMART Notebook software that is released during your active subscription period.

          You want to know how SMART Learning Suite software will behave if your subscription expires.

          When your SMART Learning Suite subscription expires, you can continue to use SMART Notebook software in limited mode. In this mode several premium features will be read only.

          When using SMART Notebook software on an interactive product, you or your students can’t reach the toolbar.

          Press Move toolbar to top/bottom of window to move the toolbar from the top of the window to the bottom.

          If you have a height-adjustable wall mount, you can also adjust the height of the interactive whiteboard or display so that students can reach it.

          Toolbar buttons described in this documentation don’t appear on the toolbar.

          If a down arrow appears on the right side of the toolbar, press it to display additional toolbar buttons.

          If the desired button you’re looking for doesn’t appear when you click the down arrow, you or another user might have removed the button (see Customizing the toolbar).

          Don’t span more than a few buttons across rows to prevent the toolbar from being wider than the SMART Notebook software window.

          You want to change the defaults on the SMART Notebook toolbar, like pen thickness or default text font.

          There isn’t enough room on your interactive product to display the contents of a page.

          Press View Screens , and then select Full Screen to display the page in Full Screen mode.

          Select the Auto-hide check box to hide the tabs when not in use.

          The Page Sorter, Gallery, Attachments, Properties and other tabs disappear whenever you press outside of the tabs.

          Press one of the tab’s icons to display it, and then clear the Auto-hide check box.

          Two users are creating or manipulating objects in SMART Notebook software on a SMART Board 800 series interactive whiteboard. One user is using his or her finger. The other user is using a pen from the pen tray.

          When the user using the pen presses a button in the toolbar, the selected tool or option changes for the user using his or her finger instead.

          The user using the pen must press buttons in the toolbar with the pen, not with a finger.

          You need to contact SMART reseller/support for further assistance.

          Gather screen shots, videos, sample files and steps required to reproduce the issue.

          Determine the scope of the issue. Are only certain user profiles affected? How many computers are affected? How widespread is the issue?

          Gather SMART Notebook and system logs.

          Windows: Open SMART Notebook software and select Help > Generate Diagnostic Data.

          macOS: Open SMART Notebook software and select Notebook > Generate Diagnostic Data.

          New features

          Create Motion Graphics templates with swappable media to enable editors in Premiere Pro to replace images or video. You can generate multiple variations of a template using Essential Properties and with different types of media for outputs such as social media graphics, animated slideshows, brand templates containing a logo.

          Make creative decisions faster when working with 3D scenes. The new real-time 3D rendering engine gives you instant feedback on your 3D designs in the Comp panel so you can easily make creative decisions much faster and spend more time iterating on your design.

          A ground plane is a horizontal plane of projection that gives you a sense of perspective and space within your 3D scene. It has a dedicated toggle button which appears in the Composition panel toolbar.

          Watch the video: Minecraft: Caves u0026 Cliffs - Update Reveal Minecon 2020 (October 2021).