In the beginning, Indians wrote 7 more or less in one stroke as a curve that looks like an uppercase ⟨J⟩ vertically inverted. The western Ghubar Arabs' main contribution was to make the longer line diagonal rather than straight, though they showed some tendencies to making the digit more rectilinear. The eastern Arabs developed the digit from a form that looked something like our 6 to one that looked like an uppercase V. Both modern Arab forms influenced the European form, a two-stroke form consisting of a horizontal upper stroke joined at its right to a stroke going down to the bottom left corner, a line that is slightly curved in some font variants. As is the case with the European digit, the Cham and Khmer digit for 7 also evolved to look like their digit 1, though in a different way, so they were also concerned with making their 7 more different. For the Khmer this often involved adding a horizontal line to the top of the digit.  This is analogous to the horizontal stroke through the middle that is sometimes used in handwriting in the Western world but which is almost never used in computer fonts. This horizontal stroke is, however, important to distinguish the glyph for seven from the glyph for one in writing that uses a long upstroke in the glyph for 1. In some Greek dialects of early 12th century the longer line diagonal was drawn in a rather semicircular transverse line.
On the seven-segment displays of pocket calculators and digital watches, 7 is the digit with the most common graphic variation (1, 6 and 9 also have variant glyphs). Most calculators use three line segments, but on Sharp, Casio, and a few other brands of calculators, 7 is written with four line segments because, in Japan, Korea and Taiwan 7 is written with a "hook" on the left, as ① in the following illustration.
While the shape of the character for the digit 7 has an ascender in most modern typefaces, in typefaces with text figures the character usually has a descender, as, for example, in .
Most people in Continental Europe,  and some in Britain and Ireland as well as Latin America, write 7 with a line in the middle ("
7"), sometimes with the top line crooked. The line through the middle is useful to clearly differentiate the digit from the digit one, as the two can appear similar when written in certain styles of handwriting. This form is used in official handwriting rules for primary school in Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Poland, other Slavic countries,  France, Italy, Belgium, Finland,  Romania, Germany, Greece,  and Hungary.  [ failed verification ]
Seven, the fourth prime number, is not only a Mersenne prime (since 2 3 − 1 = 7 ) but also a double Mersenne prime since the exponent, 3, is itself a Mersenne prime.  It is also a Newman–Shanks–Williams prime,  a Woodall prime,  a factorial prime,  a lucky prime,  a happy number (happy prime),  a safe prime (the only Mersenne safe prime), and the fourth Heegner number. 
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Grade 5 HMH Go Math – NEW
Grade 5 Math Common Core Tests
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The PrimePages : prime number research & records
Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary defines prime as follows.
prime 'prīm n [ME, fr. MF, fem. of prin first, L primus akin to L prior] 1 : first in time : ORIGINAL 2 a : having no factor except itself and one <3 is a
number> b : having no common factor except one <12 and 25 are relatively
> 3 a : first in rank, authority or significance : PRINCIPAL b : having the highest quality or value <
Each of Webster's definitions apply, but the most operative is 2a: An integer greater than one is prime if its only positive divisors are itself and one. For example 15 is not prime because it has other divisors, namely the primes 3 and 5. These pages presents lists of large primes and key research about them.
Largest Known Primes Database
Our central database acts as a &ldquoGuinness book&rdquo of prime number records! This list includes the 5000 largest known primes and smaller ones of selected forms updated hourly.
Other Lists of Primes Here
The first 1,000 primes and first 50,000,000 primes. Lists of top 20 records (e.g., twin primes, Mersenne primes. ). Small random primes up to 300 digits. The smallest titanics with special forms and many more.
The theory behind how these record primes are found and proven.
We answer common questions: Is one a prime? Longest list of primes? Why?
The Prime Glossary is a collection of definitions related to prime numbers.
Largest Known Prime by Year &darr
The Largest Known Prime by Year discusses how big have the largest known primes been historically.
How many primes are there? &darr
Over 2000 years ago Euclid proved that there are infinity many.
How Big of an Infinity?
The Riemann Hypothesis &darr
A short note about one of the most important conjectures in prime number theory. When (and if) it is proven, many of the bounds on prime estimates can be improved and primality proving can be simplified.
Check a Number's Primality &darr
A simple routine to check most small numbers for primality (and a link to a more sophisticated test). Check Primality
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7.5: New Page - Mathematics
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European Mathematical Society
to take place in the last weekend of October at the ICMS Edinburgh, has sadly been postponed till next Spring due to the current sanitary situation in Europe.
Sonia Kéfi wins prestigious Erdos-Renyi Prize for young scientists
Congratulations to Sonia Kéfi (@cnrs.fr) who has won the 2020 e Erdős-Renyi Prize “for foundational and empirically grounded theoretical research that has advanced network science and its applications in ecology, with a focus on multiple types of. (Full article)
Passing of Vaughan Jones
It is with deep regret that we announce the passing of Vaughan F. R. Jones.
Sir Vaughan Jones, Stevenson Distinguished Professor of Mathematics of Vanderbilt University and Professor Emeritus of the University of California, Berkeley, passed away. (Full article)
Math and science have never been more important to the future of our children and our nation. ENC provides the resources and support for math and science educators needed to increase content knowledge and help raise student achievement in these vital subjects.
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Richard P. Stanley
On January 15, 2018, I became officially retired from M.I.T. I am continuing as an Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor at the University of Miami during the spring semester (January-April). During the remainder of the year I am at M.I.T. Richard P. Stanley Department of Mathematics UB547 University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124
List of publications. Most of these papers are now available as pdf files, thanks to the efforts of (1) Arthur L. B. Yang (杨立波) and his colleagues at the Center for Combinatorics, Nankai University, (2) Shirley Entzminger, and (3) Darij Grinberg.
Enumerative Combinatorics : Some information on a two-volume book I have written.
Catalan Numbers: a monograph on Catalan numbers published by Cambridge University Press on March 26, 2015 (Errata and Addenda)
Hyperplane arrangements: lecture notes for graduate students.
Bijective proof problems: a list of almost 250 problems on bijective proofs, with around 27 open problems (version of 18 August 2009)
Algebraic Combinatorics: information on an undergraduate textbook, including errata and online Chapter 13 entitled "A glimpse of combinatorial commutative algebra"